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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1191; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121191

A Rapid, Accurate, and Efficient Method to Map Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils of Abandoned Mine Sites Using Converted Portable XRF Data and GIS

1
John & Willie Leone Department of Energy and Mineral Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16802, USA
2
Korea Environment Institute, Sejong 30147, Korea
3
Department of Energy Resources Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan 48513, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Susanne Charlesworth
Received: 17 October 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 25 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metals: Environmental and Human Health)
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Abstract

The use of portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) increases the rapidity and accuracy of soil contamination mapping, respectively. In practice, it is often necessary to repeat the soil contamination assessment and mapping procedure several times during soil management within a limited budget. In this study, we have developed a rapid, inexpensive, and accurate soil contamination mapping method using a PXRF data and geostatistical spatial interpolation. To obtain a large quantity of high quality data for interpolation, in situ PXRF data analyzed at 40 points were transformed to converted PXRF data using the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. The method was applied to an abandoned mine site in Korea to generate a soil contamination map for copper and was validated for investigation speed and prediction accuracy. As a result, regions that required soil remediation were identified. Our method significantly shortened the time required for mapping compared to the conventional mapping method and provided copper concentration estimates with high accuracy similar to those measured by ICP-AES. Therefore, our method is an effective way of mapping soil contamination if we consistently construct a database based on the correlation between PXRF and ICP-AES data. View Full-Text
Keywords: soil contamination mapping; portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF); geographic information systems (GIS); ordinary Kriging; heavy metal contamination; abandoned mine soil contamination mapping; portable X-ray fluorescence (PXRF); geographic information systems (GIS); ordinary Kriging; heavy metal contamination; abandoned mine
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Suh, J.; Lee, H.; Choi, Y. A Rapid, Accurate, and Efficient Method to Map Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils of Abandoned Mine Sites Using Converted Portable XRF Data and GIS. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1191.

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