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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(12), 1185; doi:10.3390/ijerph13121185

Anthropometric Measurements, Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels and Sexual Development among Boys in the Rural Western Cape, South Africa

Centre for Environmental and Occupational Health Research, School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Cape Town, Anzio Road, Observatory, Cape Town 7729, South Africa
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Anthony R. Mawson
Received: 23 September 2016 / Revised: 22 November 2016 / Accepted: 24 November 2016 / Published: 29 November 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [294 KB, uploaded 29 November 2016]

Abstract

Data on growth and sexual maturation among boys from the rural Western Cape in South Africa is limited. A cross-sectional study of 269 school boys was conducted testing for serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2); height, weight and body mass index (BMI); sexual maturity (using Tanner Stages) and a questionnaire (demographic and medical history). The median age at pubertal onset (Tanner Stage 2) and Tanner Stage 5 was 11.6 and 14.7 years, respectively. The median testicular volume was 5.5 mL at Tanner Stage 2 increasing from 2.5 mL at Tanner Stage 1 to 14.7 mL at Tanner Stage 5. Height and weight measurements were <25th & 50th percentile references at Tanner Stages 1–3. Controlling for confounders, serum FSH and LH increased (p < 0.05) from Tanner Stage 1 to 4 (by 4.1 and 3 mL respectively), and serum testosterone and estradiol increased after Tanner Stage 2 (by 12.7 nmol/L and 59.5 pmol/L respectively). These results indicate some delays in pubertal development of boys in the rural Western Cape when compared to boys from other settings possibly due to nutritional, socio-economic and environmental exposures. Changes in serum hormone levels were consistent with other populations. Initiatives to improve nutrition amongst Western Cape rural communities are recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: growth; sexual development; reproductive hormones; boys; rural growth; sexual development; reproductive hormones; boys; rural
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mao, J.; Dalvie, M.A. Anthropometric Measurements, Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels and Sexual Development among Boys in the Rural Western Cape, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1185.

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