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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(11), 1046; doi:10.3390/ijerph13111046

Cytotoxicity of Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure

1
Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Lodz University of Technology, Wolczanska 171/173, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
3
Department of Environment, Hygiene and Animal Welfare, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Chelmonskiego 38 C, 51-630 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: William A. Toscano
Received: 23 August 2016 / Revised: 17 October 2016 / Accepted: 21 October 2016 / Published: 26 October 2016
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Abstract

Long-term exposure and inhalation of odorous compounds from poultry manure can be harmful to farm workers and the surrounding residents as well as animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity and IC50 values of common odorous compounds such as ammonium, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, butyric acid, phenol, and indole in the chick liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH (Leghorn Male Hepatoma), in vitro, using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and PrestoBlue cytotoxicity assays. The cells were microscopically examined for any morphological changes post treatment. Dimethylamine exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect on LMH cells with an IC50 value of 0.06% and 0.04% after an exposure of 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Both ammonium and trimethylamine had comparable cytotoxicity and their IC50 values were 0.08% and 0.04% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Of note, indole had the lowest cytotoxicity as the majority of cells were viable even after 72 h exposure. Thus, the IC50 for indole was not calculated. Results achieved from both MTT and PrestoBlue assays were comparable. Moreover, the morphological changes induced by the tested odours in LMH cells resulted in monolayer destruction, cytoplasm vacuolisation, chromatin condensation, and changes in nucleus and cell shape. Our study showed harmful effects of odorous compounds in chick tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: ammonium; dimethylamine; trimethylamine; poultry; LMH cells; cytotoxicity; MTT; IC50 ammonium; dimethylamine; trimethylamine; poultry; LMH cells; cytotoxicity; MTT; IC50
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nowak, A.; Matusiak, K.; Borowski, S.; Bakuła, T.; Opaliński, S.; Kołacz, R.; Gutarowska, B. Cytotoxicity of Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1046.

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