Cytotoxicity of Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure
AbstractLong-term exposure and inhalation of odorous compounds from poultry manure can be harmful to farm workers and the surrounding residents as well as animals. The aim of the present study was to determine the cytotoxicity and IC50 values of common odorous compounds such as ammonium, dimethylamine, trimethylamine, butyric acid, phenol, and indole in the chick liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line LMH (Leghorn Male Hepatoma), in vitro, using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and PrestoBlue cytotoxicity assays. The cells were microscopically examined for any morphological changes post treatment. Dimethylamine exhibited the strongest cytotoxic effect on LMH cells with an IC50 value of 0.06% and 0.04% after an exposure of 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Both ammonium and trimethylamine had comparable cytotoxicity and their IC50 values were 0.08% and 0.04% after 24 h and 48 h, respectively. Of note, indole had the lowest cytotoxicity as the majority of cells were viable even after 72 h exposure. Thus, the IC50 for indole was not calculated. Results achieved from both MTT and PrestoBlue assays were comparable. Moreover, the morphological changes induced by the tested odours in LMH cells resulted in monolayer destruction, cytoplasm vacuolisation, chromatin condensation, and changes in nucleus and cell shape. Our study showed harmful effects of odorous compounds in chick tissues. View Full-Text
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Nowak, A.; Matusiak, K.; Borowski, S.; Bakuła, T.; Opaliński, S.; Kołacz, R.; Gutarowska, B. Cytotoxicity of Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1046.
Nowak A, Matusiak K, Borowski S, Bakuła T, Opaliński S, Kołacz R, Gutarowska B. Cytotoxicity of Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2016; 13(11):1046.Chicago/Turabian Style
Nowak, Adriana; Matusiak, Katarzyna; Borowski, Sebastian; Bakuła, Tadeusz; Opaliński, Sebastian; Kołacz, Roman; Gutarowska, Beata. 2016. "Cytotoxicity of Odorous Compounds from Poultry Manure." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 13, no. 11: 1046.
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