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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1023; doi:10.3390/ijerph13101023

Multi-Level, Multi-Component Approaches to Community Based Interventions for Healthy Living—A Three Case Comparison

1
Department of Clinical Medicine, Aalborg University, Frederikskaj 10, Building: B, Room: B2, Copenhagen SV 2450, Denmark
2
College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA
3
Center for Human Nutrition, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Room W2041, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 1 June 2016 / Revised: 23 September 2016 / Accepted: 27 September 2016 / Published: 20 October 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [298 KB, uploaded 20 October 2016]

Abstract

There is increasing interest in integrated and coordinated programs that intervene in multiple community settings/institutions at the same time and involve policy and system changes. The purpose of the paper is to analyse three comparable cases of Multi Level, Multi Component intervention programs (ML-MC) from across the world in order to give recommendations for research, policy and practice in this field. Through the comparison of three cases: Health and Local Community (SoL-program), Children’s Healthy Living (CHL) and B’More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK), this paper examines the potential of ML-MC community-based public health nutrition interventions to create sustainable change. The paper proposes methodology, guidelines and directions for future research through analysis and examination strengths and weaknesses in the programs. Similarities are that they engage and commit local stakeholders in a structured approach to integrate intervention components in order to create dose and intensity. In that way, they all make provisions for post intervention impact sustainability. All programs target the child and family members’ knowledge, attitudes, behavior, the policy level, and the environmental level. The study illustrates the diversity in communities as well as diversity in terms of which and how sites and settings such as schools, kindergartens, community groups and grocery stores became involved in the programs. Programs are also different in terms of involvement of media stakeholders. The comparison of the three cases suggests that there is a need to build collaboration and partnerships from the beginning, plan for sufficient intensity/dose, emphasize/create consistency across levels and components of the intervention, build synchronization across levels, and plan for sustainability. View Full-Text
Keywords: Community Health Programs; multi-level interventions; multi component interventions; healthy living; Health and Local Community (SoL-program); Children’s Healthy Living (CHL); B’More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK) Community Health Programs; multi-level interventions; multi component interventions; healthy living; Health and Local Community (SoL-program); Children’s Healthy Living (CHL); B’More Healthy Communities for Kids (BHCK)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Mikkelsen, B.E.; Novotny, R.; Gittelsohn, J. Multi-Level, Multi-Component Approaches to Community Based Interventions for Healthy Living—A Three Case Comparison. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1023.

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