Next Article in Journal
Sun Exposure and Its Effects on Human Health: Mechanisms through Which Sun Exposure Could Reduce the Risk of Developing Obesity and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction
Next Article in Special Issue
Associations of Breast Cancer Risk Factors with Premenopausal Sex Hormones in Women with Very Low Breast Cancer Risk
Previous Article in Journal
Exercise Performance Measurement with Smartphone Embedded Sensor for Well-Being Management
Previous Article in Special Issue
Temporal Trends in Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Mortality in China, 1973–2005: An Analysis of Nationwide Surveys on Cause of Death
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(10), 1000; doi:10.3390/ijerph13101000

Urban Rural Differences in Breast Cancer in New Zealand

1
National Institute of Demographic and Economic Analysis, The University of Waikato, Hamilton 3240, New Zealand
2
School of Population Health, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
3
Department of Public Health, The University of Otago, Wellington 6021, New Zealand
4
School of Medicine, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Peter Baade
Received: 19 August 2016 / Revised: 4 October 2016 / Accepted: 7 October 2016 / Published: 11 October 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geographical Variation in Breast Cancer Outcomes)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [259 KB, uploaded 11 October 2016]

Abstract

Many rural communities have poor access to health services due to a combination of distance from specialist services and a relative shortage of general practitioners. Our aims were to compare the characteristics of urban and rural women with breast cancer in New Zealand, to assess breast cancer-specific and all-cause survival using the Kaplan–Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model, and to assess whether the impact of rurality is different for Māori and New Zealand (NZ) European women. We found that rural women tended to be older and were more likely to be Māori. Overall there were no differences between urban and rural women with regards their survival. Rural Māori tended to be older, more likely to be diagnosed with metastatic disease and less likely to be screen detected than urban Māori. Rural Māori women had inferior breast cancer-specific survival and all-cause survival at 10 years at 72.1% and 55.8% compared to 77.9% and 64.9% for urban Māori. The study shows that rather than being concerned that more needs to be done for rural women in general it is rural Māori women where we need to make extra efforts to ensure early stage at diagnosis and optimum treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: rural; urban; breast cancer; Māori; equity; survival rural; urban; breast cancer; Māori; equity; survival
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lawrenson, R.; Lao, C.; Elwood, M.; Brown, C.; Sarfati, D.; Campbell, I. Urban Rural Differences in Breast Cancer in New Zealand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 1000.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top