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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 96; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010096

Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia

1
Smart Water Research Centre, Building G51, Griffith University, Southport, Queensland 4222, Australia
2
Genecology Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sippy Downs, Queensland 4558, Australia
3
Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 21 October 2015 / Revised: 23 December 2015 / Accepted: 28 December 2015 / Published: 2 January 2016
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Abstract

Maturation ponds are used in rural and regional areas in Australia to remove the microbial loads of sewage wastewater, however, they have not been studied intensively until present. Using a combination of culture-based methods and quantitative real-time PCR, we assessed microbial removal rates in maturation ponds at four waste stabilization ponds (WSP) with (n = 1) and without (n = 3) baffles in rural and remote communities in Australia. Concentrations of total coliforms, E. coli, enterococci, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., F+ RNA coliphage, adenovirus, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia (oo) cysts in maturation ponds were measured at the inlet and outlet. Only the baffled pond demonstrated a significant removal of most of the pathogens tested and therefore was subjected to further study by analyzing E. coli and enterococci concentrations at six points along the baffles over five sampling rounds. Using culture-based methods, we found a decrease in the number of E. coli and enterococci from the initial values of 100,000 CFU per 100 mL in the inlet samples to approximately 1000 CFU per 100 mL in the outlet samples for both bacterial groups. Giardia cysts removal was relatively higher than fecal indicators reduction possibly due to sedimentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: waste stabilization pond (WSP); maturation pond; E. coli; enterococci; Campylobacter jejuni; Salmonella enterica; Giardia cysts waste stabilization pond (WSP); maturation pond; E. coli; enterococci; Campylobacter jejuni; Salmonella enterica; Giardia cysts
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sheludchenko, M.; Padovan, A.; Katouli, M.; Stratton, H. Removal of Fecal Indicators, Pathogenic Bacteria, Adenovirus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia (oo)cysts in Waste Stabilization Ponds in Northern and Eastern Australia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 96.

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