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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 21;

Barriers for Compliance to Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Screening Cancer Tests among Hispanic Patients

Universidad Central del Caribe, School of Medicine, Cancer Research Unit, Internal Medicine Department, P.O. BOX 60327, Bayamon 00960-6032, Puerto Rico
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Mark Edberg, Barbara E. Hayes, Valerie Montgomery Rice and Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 13 October 2015 / Accepted: 15 October 2015 / Published: 22 December 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [204 KB, uploaded 22 December 2015]


Hispanics are less likely to undergo screening tests for colorectal cancer and cervical cancer than non-Hispanic whites. Compliance with mammography, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), colonoscopy, and cervical smears (PAP) and barriers for compliance were studied. A descriptive study was performed with 194 ambulatory patients while they attended routine medical visits. Women are more likely than men to undergo a colonoscopy. Conversely, FOBT was most likely reported by men. Reasons for compliance with FOBT differed by gender. Men were most likely to avoid FOBT due to lack of knowledge whereas women reported that physicians do not recommend the procedure. Both men and women reported that lack of physician’s recommendation was their primary reason for not undergoing a colonoscopy. Men tend to report lack of knowledge about colonoscopy procedure. A higher mammogram utilization rate was reported by women older than 40 years. PAP smears were reported by 74% of women older than 21 years. The major reasons for avoiding mammography and PAP tests were having a busy schedule, fear, and feeling uncomfortable during the procedure. In a multivariate regression analysis, occupational status was found to be a predictor for compliance with FOBT and colonoscopy. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer screening; compliance; barriers; Hispanics cancer screening; compliance; barriers; Hispanics
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Miranda-Diaz, C.; Betancourt, E.; Ruiz-Candelaria, Y.; Hunter-Mellado, R.F. Barriers for Compliance to Breast, Colorectal, and Cervical Screening Cancer Tests among Hispanic Patients. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 21.

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