Next Article in Journal
Regional Differences in Correlates of Daily Walking among Middle Age and Older Australian Rural Adults: Implications for Health Promotion
Previous Article in Journal
Descriptive Characteristics of Surface Water Quality in Hong Kong by a Self-Organising Map
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13(1), 113; doi:10.3390/ijerph13010113

Unemployment Rate, Smoking in China: Are They Related?

1
School of Business, Dalian University of Technology, Panjin 124221, China
2
School of Community Health Sciences, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89103, USA
3
Department of Health Care Administration, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89103, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 16 December 2015 / Revised: 29 December 2015 / Accepted: 6 January 2016 / Published: 8 January 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [283 KB, uploaded 8 January 2016]

Abstract

Background: Studies on the relationship between unemployment rate and smoking have yielded mixed results. The issue in China has not been studied. This study aims to examine the influence of unemployment rate on smoking in China. Methods: Logit model and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation were used to estimate the effects. Estimations were done for 4585 individual over 45 using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces in 2008 and 2012. Results: A percent increase in the unemployment rate resulted in the increase in the likelihood of smoking by a combined 9.1 percent for those who smoked including a 2.9% increase for those who smoked 1–10 cigarettes per day; a 2.8% increase for those who smoked 11–20 cigarettes per day; and a 3.4% increase for those who smoked 20 cigarettes or more per day. The effects were stronger for those who were employed. Non-drinkers were more likely to engage in smoking with increased unemployment rate. 2SLS estimation revealed the same association. Conclusions: The unemployment rate was positively associated with smoking behavior. Smoking control and intervention strategies should focus on both the individual′s characteristics and the physical environment in which unemployment rate tend to rise. View Full-Text
Keywords: China; current smoker; number of cigarettes smoked daily; unemployment rate China; current smoker; number of cigarettes smoked daily; unemployment rate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, Q.; Shen, J.J.; Cochran, C. Unemployment Rate, Smoking in China: Are They Related? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2016, 13, 113.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top