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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(9), 10635-10647; doi:10.3390/ijerph120910635

Effect of Personal Exposure to PM2.5 on Respiratory Health in a Mexican Panel of Patients with COPD

1
Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Morelos, Av. Universidad #655, Col. Santa María Ahuacatitlán, C.P. 62100 Cuernavaca, Morelos, México
2
Comisión Federal para la Protección contra Riesgos Sanitarios, Monterrey #33, Col. Roma, Del. Cuauhtémoc, C.P. 06700 México, D.F., México
3
Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Calz. Tlalpan #4502, Col. Sección XVI, Del. Tlalpan, C.P. 14080 México, D.F., México
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 11 June 2015 / Revised: 13 August 2015 / Accepted: 17 August 2015 / Published: 28 August 2015
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Abstract

Background: Air pollution is a problem, especially in developing countries. We examined the association between personal exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) on respiratory health in a group of adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods: All participants resided in Mexico City and during follow-up, personal exposure to PM2.5, respiratory symptoms, medications, and daily activity were registered daily. Peak expiratory flow (PEF) was measured twice daily, from February through December, 2000, in 29 adults with moderate, severe, and very severe COPD. PEF changes were estimated for each 10 µg/m3 increment of PM2.5, adjustment for severity of COPD, minimum temperature, and day of the sampling. Results: For a 10-µg/m3 increase in the daily average of a two-day personal exposure to PM2.5, there was a significant 33% increase in cough (95% CI, range, 5‒69%), and 23% in phlegm (95% CI, range, 2‒54%), a reduction of the PEF average in the morning of −1.4 L/min. (95% CI , range, −2.8 to −0.04), and at night of −3.0 L/min (95% CI, range, −5.7 to −0.3), respectively. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 was associated with reductions in PEF and increased respiratory symptoms in adults with COPD. The PEF reduction was observed both at morning and at night. View Full-Text
Keywords: PM2.5 personal exposure; COPD; PEF PM2.5 personal exposure; COPD; PEF
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cortez-Lugo, M.; Ramírez-Aguilar, M.; Pérez-Padilla, R.; Sansores-Martínez, R.; Ramírez-Venegas, A.; Barraza-Villarreal, A. Effect of Personal Exposure to PM2.5 on Respiratory Health in a Mexican Panel of Patients with COPD. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 10635-10647.

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