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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(8), 9672-9682; doi:10.3390/ijerph120809672

The Effects of Lead Exposure on Serum Uric Acid and Hyperuricemia in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study

1
The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha 410013, China
2
Institute of Environment and Health, Central South University, Changsha 410013, China
3
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Zixing 423400, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Howard W. Mielke
Received: 23 June 2015 / Revised: 8 August 2015 / Accepted: 12 August 2015 / Published: 18 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lead: Risk Assessment and Health Effects)
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Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between blood lead levels and both serum uric acid and hyperuricemia in adult residents living within an area of China with lead pollution. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 2120 subjects (1180 of whom were male) between the ages of 20 and 75 years who had undergone health examinations at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in a lead-polluted area of China between June 2013 and September 2014. Blood lead was positively correlated with serum uric acid in both males (r = 0.095, p = 0.001) and females (r = 0.134, p < 0.001). Multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrated that for males, blood lead (p = 0.006), age (p = 0.001), current smoking (p = 0.012), education (p = 0.001), triglycerides (TG) (p < 0.001), and serum creatinine (p < 0.001) were independently associated with serum uric acid. For females, blood lead (p < 0.001), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.009), and TG (p < 0.001) were independently associated with serum uric acid. After multiple adjustments, blood lead was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of hyperuricemia when female subjects were categorized into quartiles (for the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile, odds ratio (OR) = 2.190; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.106–4.338; p = 0.025); however, no such association was observed for male subjects. Continuous lead exposure has an independent impact on serum uric acid for both males and females, although this impact is more pronounced for females than for males. Lead exposure is significantly associated with hyperuricemia for females but not for males. View Full-Text
Keywords: lead exposure; uric acid; hyperuricemia; non-occupational exposure lead exposure; uric acid; hyperuricemia; non-occupational exposure
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dai, H.; Huang, Z.; Deng, Q.; Li, Y.; Xiao, T.; Ning, X.; Lu, Y.; Yuan, H. The Effects of Lead Exposure on Serum Uric Acid and Hyperuricemia in Chinese Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 9672-9682.

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