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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(8), 9199-9217; doi:10.3390/ijerph120809199

Additional Burden of Diseases Associated with Cadmium Exposure: A Case Study of Cadmium Contaminated Rice Fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand

1
International Health Policy Program, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand
2
Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110, Thailand
3
Bureau of Occupational and Environmental Disease, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi 11000, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 1 May 2015 / Revised: 25 July 2015 / Accepted: 28 July 2015 / Published: 7 August 2015
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Abstract

The cadmium (Cd) contaminated rice fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand has been one of the major environmental problems in Thailand for the last 10 years. We used disability adjusted life years (DALYs) to estimate the burden of disease attributable to Cd in terms of additional DALYs of Mae Sot residents. Cd exposure data included Cd and β2–microglobulin (β2-MG) in urine (as an internal exposure dose) and estimated cadmium daily intake (as an external exposure dose). Compared to the general Thai population, Mae Sot residents gained 10%–86% DALYs from nephrosis/nephritis, heart diseases, osteoporosis and cancer depending on their Cd exposure type and exposure level. The results for urinary Cd and dietary Cd intake varied according to the studies used for risk estimation. The ceiling effect was observed in results using dietary Cd intake because of the high Cd content in rice grown in the Mae Sot area. The results from β2-MG were more robust with additional DALYs ranging from 36%–86% for heart failure, cerebral infraction, and nephrosis/nephritis. Additional DALYs is a useful approach for assessing the magnitude of environmental Cd exposure. The Mae Sot population lost more healthy life compared to populations living in a non- or less Cd polluted area. This method should be applicable to various types of environmental contamination problems if exposure assessment information is available. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; Mae Sot; DALYs; disability adjusted life years cadmium; Mae Sot; DALYs; disability adjusted life years
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Songprasert, N.; Sukaew, T.; Kusreesakul, K.; Swaddiwudhipong, W.; Padungtod, C.; Bundhamcharoen, K. Additional Burden of Diseases Associated with Cadmium Exposure: A Case Study of Cadmium Contaminated Rice Fields in Mae Sot District, Tak Province, Thailand. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 9199-9217.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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