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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(8), 9036-9045; doi:10.3390/ijerph120809036

Prevalence and Determinants of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Kuwait

1
Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, P.O. Box 24885, Safat 13109, Kuwait
2
Food and Nutrition Administration, Ministry of Health, P.O. Box 24225, Safat 13103, Kuwait
3
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20740, USA
4
Ministry of Health, Medical Laboratories Services, Sabah Hospital Laboratories, P.O. Box 24225, Safat 13103, Kuwait
5
National Nutrition Institute, 16 Kasr El Aini Street, P.O Box11311, Cairo, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 12 June 2015 / Revised: 22 July 2015 / Accepted: 27 July 2015 / Published: 31 July 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [190 KB, uploaded 31 July 2015]

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency (ID) of a nationally representative sample of the Kuwait population. We also determined if anemia differed by socioeconomic status or by RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. The subjects who were made up of 1830 males and females between the ages of 2 months to 86 years, were divided into the following age groups (0–5, 5–11, 12–14, 15–19, 20–49, ≥50 years). Results showed that the prevalence of anemia was 3% in adult males and 17% in females. The prevalence of ID varied according to age between 4% (≥50 years) and 21% (5–11 years) and 9% (12–14 years) and 23% (15–19 years), respectively, in males and females. The prevalence of anemia and ID was higher in females compared to males. Adults with normal ferritin level, but with low RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels had higher prevalence of anemia than those with normal RBC folate and vitamins A and B12 levels. This first nationally representative nutrition and health survey in Kuwait indicated that anemia and ID are prevalent and ID contributes significantly to anemia prevalence. View Full-Text
Keywords: epidemiology; public health; RBC folate; vitamin A epidemiology; public health; RBC folate; vitamin A
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Al Zenki, S.; Alomirah, H.; Al Hooti, S.; Al Hamad, N.; Jackson, R.T.; Rao, A.; Al Jahmah, N.; Al Obaid, I.; Al Ghanim, J.; Al Somaie, M.; Zaghloul, S.; Al Othman, A. Prevalence and Determinants of Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Kuwait. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 9036-9045.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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