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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(7), 7585-7592; doi:10.3390/ijerph120707585

Seminal Shedding of CMV and HIV Transmission among Men Who Have Sex with Men

Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
Department of Mathematical Sciences, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa
County of San Diego Public Health Services, CA 92105, USA
Veterans Affairs San Diego Healthcare System, San Diego, CA 92161, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 27 June 2015 / Accepted: 29 June 2015 / Published: 7 July 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [666 KB, uploaded 7 July 2015]


As in many urban areas in the United States, the largest burden of the HIV epidemic in San Diego is borne by men who have sex with men (MSM). Using data from well-characterized HIV transmitting and non-transmitting partner pairs of MSM in San Diego, we calculated the population attributable risk (PAR) of HIV transmissions for different co-infections common among MSM in this area. We found that over a third of HIV transmissions could be potentially attributed to genital shedding of cytomegalovirus (CMV) (111 transmission events), compared to 21% potentially attributed to bacterial sexually transmitted infections (STI) (62 events) and 17% to herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) (51 events). Although our study cannot infer causality between the described associations and is limited in sample size, these results suggest that interventions aimed at reducing CMV shedding might be an attractive HIV prevention strategy in populations with high prevalence of CMV co-infection. View Full-Text
Keywords: HIV transmission; cytomegalovirus; HIV epidemics; men who have sex with men HIV transmission; cytomegalovirus; HIV epidemics; men who have sex with men
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Gianella, S.; Scheffler, K.; Mehta, S.R.; Little, S.J.; Freitas, L.; Morris, S.R.; Smith, D.M. Seminal Shedding of CMV and HIV Transmission among Men Who Have Sex with Men. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 7585-7592.

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