Next Article in Journal
Class 1 Integrons and the Antiseptic Resistance Gene (qacEΔ1) in Municipal and Swine Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment Plants and Wastewater—Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus
Next Article in Special Issue
State-Issued Identification Cards Reveal Patterns in Adult Weight Status
Previous Article in Journal
Petroleum Coke in the Urban Environment: A Review of Potential Health Effects
Previous Article in Special Issue
Community, State, and Federal Approaches to Cumulative Risk Assessment: Challenges and Opportunities for Integration
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 6232-6248; doi:10.3390/ijerph120606232

Disparities in Children’s Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions

1
Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kyung Hee University Hospital, 23 Kyungheedae-Ro, Dongdaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-872, Korea
2
Department of Preventive Medicine, Dankook University College of Medicine, 119 Dandae-Ro, Dongnam-Gu, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714, Korea
3
Department of Social Medicine, Inha University School of Medicine, 366 Seohae-Daero, Jung-Gu, Incheon 400-712, Korea
4
Department of Preventive Medicine, Kangwon National University School of Medicine, 1, Gangwondaehak-Gil, Chuncheon, Gangwon 200-701, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 22 December 2014 / Revised: 7 May 2015 / Accepted: 25 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eliminating Health Disparities to Achieve Health Equity)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1037 KB, uploaded 29 May 2015]   |  

Abstract

We aimed to examine the associations between blood lead and mercury levels and individual and community level socioeconomic positions (SEPs) in school-aged children. A longitudinal cohort study was performed in 33 elementary schools in 10 cities in Korea. Among a total of 6094 children included at baseline, the final study population, 2281 children followed-up biennially, were analyzed. The geometric mean (GM) levels of blood lead were 1.73 μg/dL (range 0.02–9.26) and 1.56 μg/dL (range 0.02–6.83) for male and female children, respectively. The blood lead levels were significantly higher in males, children living in rural areas, and those with lower individual SEP. The GM levels of blood mercury were 2.07 μg/L (range 0.09–12.67) and 2.06 μg/L (range 0.03–11.74) for males and females, respectively. Increased blood mercury levels were significantly associated with urban areas, higher individual SEP, and more deprived communities. The risk of high blood lead level was significantly higher for the lower individual SEP (odds ratio (OR) 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–3.50 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship observed after adjusting for the community SEP. The association between high blood lead levels and lower individual SEP was much stronger in the more deprived communities (OR 2.88, 95% CI 1.27–6.53) than in the less deprived communities (OR 1.40, 95% CI 0.76–2.59), and showed a significant decreasing trend during the follow-up only in the less deprived communities. The risk of high blood mercury levels was higher in higher individual SEP (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.40–1.03 in the lowest educational attainment of the father), with a significant dose-response relationship noted. Significant decreasing trends were observed during the follow-up both in the less and more deprived communities. From a public health point-of-view, community level intervention with different approaches for different metals is warranted to protect children from environmental exposure. View Full-Text
Keywords: socioeconomic position; children; blood lead; blood mercury; community intervention socioeconomic position; children; blood lead; blood mercury; community intervention
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Lim, S.; Ha, M.; Hwang, S.-S.; Son, M.; Kwon, H.-J. Disparities in Children’s Blood Lead and Mercury Levels According to Community and Individual Socioeconomic Positions. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6232-6248.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top