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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(6), 5905-5917; doi:10.3390/ijerph120605905

Simultaneous Exposure to Heavy Metals among Residents in the Industrial Complex: Korean National Cohort Study

1
Department of Environmental Health Science, Soonchunhyang University, 22 Soonchunhyang-ro, Asan-si, 336-745, Korea
2
Department of Occupational Epidemiology, Samsung Health Research Institute, Samsung Electronics, Suwon city 443-742, Korea
3
Department of Industrial Health, Catholic University of Pusan, 57 Oryundae-ro, Geumjeong-gu, Busan, 609-817, Korea
4
Department of Environmental Health, National Institute of Environment Research, 42 Hwangyeong-ro, Incheon, 404-170, Korea
5
School of Public Health, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Seoul, 151-015, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 8 March 2015 / Accepted: 15 May 2015 / Published: 27 May 2015
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Abstract

A survey was conducted to evaluate the multi-exposure level and correlation among toxic metal biomarkers (Cd, Pb, and Hg). A total of 592 individuals who participated in the survey were residents near an industrial complex in Gwangyang and Yeosu (exposed group) and of Hadong and Namhae (control group) in southern Korea from May 2007 to November 2010. The Gwangyang and Yeosu area exposed groups had slightly higher blood Pb (2.21 and 1.90 µg/dL), urinary Cd observed values (2.20 and 1.46 µg/L), urinary Cd with a urinary creatinine correction (1.43 and 1.25 µg/g Cr), and urinary Hg observed values (2.26 and 0.98 µg/L) in women participants than those in the Hadong and Namhae area (control group). Blood Pb (3.18 and 2.55 µg/dL), urinary Hg observed values (1.14 and 0.92 µg/L), and urinary Hg with a urinary creatinine correction (1.06 and 0.96 µg/L) for male participants were also slightly higher than those in the Hadong and Namhae area (control group). The correlation among urinary Cd, Hg and Pb concentrations in the blood was significant. We suggest that the exposed group of residents were simultaneously exposed to Pb, Cd, and Hg from contaminated ambient air originating from the iron manufacturing industrial complex. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metal; industry complex; bio-monitoring; Cd; Pb; Hg heavy metal; industry complex; bio-monitoring; Cd; Pb; Hg
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Park, H.; Lee, K.; Moon, C.-S.; Woo, K.; Kang, T.-S.; Chung, E.-K.; Son, B.-S. Simultaneous Exposure to Heavy Metals among Residents in the Industrial Complex: Korean National Cohort Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 5905-5917.

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