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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(5), 4967-4991; doi:10.3390/ijerph120504967

Intraurban and Longitudinal Variability of Classical Pollutants in Kraków, Poland, 2000–2010

1
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Epidemiology, and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, One University Place, Rm 153, Rensselaer, NY 12144, USA
2
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University School of Public Health, 3215 Market St., Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3
Exposure, Epidemiology and Risk Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, P.O. Box 15677, Landmark 406 West, 401 Park Drive, Boston, MA 02215, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 5 January 2015 / Revised: 7 March 2015 / Accepted: 30 March 2015 / Published: 6 May 2015
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Abstract

In spite of a dramatic decrease in anthropogenic emissions, ambient concentrations of major pollutants have not changed within many urban locations. To clarify the relationship between ambient air quality trend and the population exposures, we compared the intraurban versus temporal variability of the collocated measurements of five major air pollutants including particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10), < 2.5 µm (PM2.5), tropospheric ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), in Kraków, Poland, during the 2000-2010 period. Strong seasonal trends and overall absence of spatial heterogeneity in PM10 and PM2.5, except in the traffic monitoring site, were observed across the monitoring network. The range of median PM2.5 concentrations during winter (54–64 µg/m3) was 3- to 4-times higher than the summer medians (15–26 µg/m3) across the sites during 2009-2010. Furthermore, large proportion of PM10 appears to be comprised of PM2.5 (PM2.5/PM10 concentration ratios range, 0.5–0.7). At each monitoring site, the Pearson’s correlation coefficients between PM2.5 and PM10 ranged between 0.944 and 0.963, suggesting a health-relevance of PM10 monitoring. One ln-unit increase in PM10 was associated with 92%–100% increase in PM2.5 concentrations in the same location. While PM10 did not demonstrate a clear temporal trend, SO2 concentrations steadily declined by 40% during the 2000–2010 period. Summertime median NO2 concentration was acutely elevated ‎(70 mg/m3 vs. 22 mg/m3) at the traffic oriented site compared to the city’s central monitoring site. The traffic and the industrial sites were associated with highest number of days during which 24-hour mean PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations exceeded the European Union standard. Steadily growing contributions by vehicular emissions appear to be associated with the absence of clear trend in PM10. Current practices of air quality control within Kraków may not be adequate for the protection of the public’s health. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; Krakow; coal combustion; exposure misclassification; exposure assessment air pollution; Krakow; coal combustion; exposure misclassification; exposure assessment
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, H.; Melly, S.; Spengler, J. Intraurban and Longitudinal Variability of Classical Pollutants in Kraków, Poland, 2000–2010. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 4967-4991.

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