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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(4), 3480-3505; doi:10.3390/ijerph120403480

A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium

1
Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Korea
3
Department of Biochemistry, Shivaji University Kolhapur 416004, India
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Oladele A. Ogunseitan
Received: 2 March 2015 / Revised: 17 March 2015 / Accepted: 19 March 2015 / Published: 25 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hazardous Waste and Human Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1367 KB, uploaded 25 March 2015]   |  

Abstract

Environmental release of benzidine-based dyes is a matter of health concern. Here, a microbial consortium was enriched from textile dye contaminated soils and investigated for biodegradation of the carcinogenic benzidine-based dye Trypan Blue using wheat bran (WB) as growth medium. The PCR-DGGE analysis of enriched microbial consortium revealed the presence of 15 different bacteria. Decolorization studies suggested that the microbial consortium has high metabolic activity towards Trypan Blue as complete removal of 50 mg∙L−1 dye was observed within 24 h at 30 ± 0.2 °C and pH 7. Significant reduction in TOC (64%) and COD (88%) of dye decolorized broths confirmed mineralization. Induction in azoreductase (500%), NADH-DCIP reductase (264%) and laccase (275%) proved enzymatic decolorization of dye. HPLC analysis of dye decolorized products showed the formation of six metabolites while the FTIR spectrum indicated removal of diazo bonds at 1612.30 and 1581.34 cm−1. The proposed dye degradation pathway based on GC-MS and enzyme analysis suggested the formation of two low molecular weight intermediates. Phytotoxicity and acute toxicity studies revealed the less toxic nature of the dye degradation products. These results provide experimental evidence for the utilization of agricultural waste as a novel low-cost growth medium for biodegradation of benzidine-based dyes, and suggested the potential of the microbial consortium in detoxification. View Full-Text
Keywords: wheat bran; benzidine-based dyes; Trypan Blue; mutagenic; microbial consortium; decolorization; biodegradation; detoxification. wheat bran; benzidine-based dyes; Trypan Blue; mutagenic; microbial consortium; decolorization; biodegradation; detoxification.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lade, H.; Kadam, A.; Paul, D.; Govindwar, S. A Low-Cost Wheat Bran Medium for Biodegradation of the Benzidine-Based Carcinogenic Dye Trypan Blue Using a Microbial Consortium. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 3480-3505.

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