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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 2950-2966; doi:10.3390/ijerph120302950

Optimized Arrangement of Constant Ambient Air Monitoring Stations in the Kanto Region of Japan

1
Department of Environmental Systems, Institute of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8563, Japan
2
Research Center for Sustainable Science and Engineering, Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577, Japan
3
Tokyo Metropolitan Industrial Technology Research Institute, 2-4-10 Aomi, Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-0064, Japan
4
Department of Environmental Medicine and Behavioral Science, Faculty of Medicine, Kinki University, 377-2, Ohno-higashi, Osakasayama, Osaka, 589-8511, Japan
5
Department of Materials and Life Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Seikei University, 3-3-1 Kichijoji-kitamachi, Musashino, Tokyo 180-8633, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Michael S. Breen
Received: 18 December 2014 / Revised: 19 February 2015 / Accepted: 27 February 2015 / Published: 10 March 2015
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Abstract

Continuous ambient air monitoring systems have been introduced worldwide. However, such monitoring forces autonomous communities to bear a significant financial burden. Thus, it is important to identify pollutant-monitoring stations that are less efficient, while minimizing loss of data quality and mitigating effects on the determination of spatiotemporal trends of pollutants. This study describes a procedure for optimizing a constant ambient air monitoring system in the Kanto region of Japan. Constant ambient air monitoring stations in the area were topologically classified into four groups by cluster analysis and principle component analysis. Then, air pollution characteristics in each area were reviewed using concentration contour maps and average pollution concentrations. We then introduced three simple criteria to reduce the number of monitoring stations: (1) retain the monitoring station if there were similarities between its data and average data of the group to which it belongs; (2) retain the station if its data showed higher concentrations; and (3) retain the station if the monitored concentration levels had an increasing trend. With this procedure, the total number of air monitoring stations in suburban and urban areas was reduced by 36.5%. The introduction of three new types of monitoring stations is proposed, namely, mobile, for local non-methane hydrocarbon pollution, and Ox-prioritized. View Full-Text
Keywords: constant ambient air monitoring; Kanto region; NOx; Ox; non-methane hydrocarbon; suspended particulate matter; principle component analysis constant ambient air monitoring; Kanto region; NOx; Ox; non-methane hydrocarbon; suspended particulate matter; principle component analysis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shirato, S.; Iizuka, A.; Mizukoshi, A.; Noguchi, M.; Yamasaki, A.; Yanagisawa, Y. Optimized Arrangement of Constant Ambient Air Monitoring Stations in the Kanto Region of Japan. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 2950-2966.

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