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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(3), 2588-2611; doi:10.3390/ijerph120302588

Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California Davis, One Shields Ave., Davis, CA 95616, USA
2
Department of Disease Control, Faculty of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 11 December 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2015 / Accepted: 13 February 2015 / Published: 27 February 2015
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Abstract

Pit latrines are the main form of sanitation in unplanned areas in many rapidly growing developing cities. Understanding demand for pit latrine fecal sludge management (FSM) services in these communities is important for designing demand-responsive sanitation services and policies to improve public health. We examine latrine emptying knowledge, attitudes, behavior, trends and rates of safe/unsafe emptying, and measure demand for a new hygienic latrine emptying service in unplanned communities in Dar Es Salaam (Dar), Tanzania, using data from a cross-sectional survey at 662 residential properties in 35 unplanned sub-wards across Dar, where 97% had pit latrines. A picture emerges of expensive and poor FSM service options for latrine owners, resulting in widespread fecal sludge exposure that is likely to increase unless addressed. Households delay emptying as long as possible, use full pits beyond what is safe, face high costs even for unhygienic emptying, and resort to unsafe practices like ‘flooding out’. We measured strong interest in and willingness to pay (WTP) for the new pit emptying service at 96% of residences; 57% were WTP ≥U.S. $17 to remove ≥200 L of sludge. Emerging policy recommendations for safe FSM in unplanned urban communities in Dar and elsewhere are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: urban sanitation; fecal sludge management; willingness to pay for emptying services; Gulper manual de-sludging pump; latrine replacement; emptying services; emptying frequency; empting costs; pit additives; affordability urban sanitation; fecal sludge management; willingness to pay for emptying services; Gulper manual de-sludging pump; latrine replacement; emptying services; emptying frequency; empting costs; pit additives; affordability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Jenkins, M.W.; Cumming, O.; Cairncross, S. Pit Latrine Emptying Behavior and Demand for Sanitation Services in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 2588-2611.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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