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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1667-1686; doi:10.3390/ijerph120201667

Indoor and Outdoor Exposure to Ultrafine, Fine and Microbiologically Derived Particulate Matter Related to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects in a Panel of Elderly Urban Citizens

1
Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, DK-1014, Copenhagen, Denmark
2
Danish Building Research Institute, Department of Construction and Health, Aalborg University, Copenhagen, Denmark
3
Center for Epidemiology and Screening, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Øster Farimagsgade 5, DK-1014 Copenhagen, Denmark
4
National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Lersø Parkallé 105, 2100 Copenhagen, Denmark
5
Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Otto Hänninen
Received: 29 August 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 23 January 2015 / Published: 2 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrafine Particles and Potential Health Effects)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [753 KB, uploaded 2 February 2015]

Abstract

To explore associations of exposure to ambient and indoor air particulate and bio-aerosol pollutants with cardiovascular and respiratory disease markers, we utilized seven repeated measurements from 48 elderly subjects participating in a 4-week home air filtration study. Microvascular function (MVF), lung function, blood leukocyte counts, monocyte adhesion molecule expression, C-reactive protein, Clara cell protein (CC16) and surfactant protein-D (SPD) were examined in relation to exposure preceding each measurement. Exposure assessment included 48-h urban background monitoring of PM10, PM2.5 and particle number concentration (PNC), weekly measurements of PM2.5 in living- and bedroom, 24-h measurements of indoor PNC three times, and bio-aerosol components in settled dust on a 2-week basis. Statistically significant inverse associations included: MVF with outdoor PNC; granulocyte counts with PM2.5; CD31 expression with dust fungi; SPD with dust endotoxin. Significant positive associations included: MVF with dust bacteria; monocyte expression of CD11 with PM2.5 in the bedroom and dust bacteria and endotoxin, CD31 expression with dust serine protease; serum CC16 with dust NAGase. Multiple comparisons demand cautious interpretation of results, which suggest that outdoor PNC have adverse effects on MVF, and outdoor and indoor PM2.5 and bio-aerosols are associated with markers of inflammation and lung cell integrity. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrafine particles; indoor air pollution; ambient air pollution; PM2.5; bioaerosols; microvascular function; lung function; inflammation ultrafine particles; indoor air pollution; ambient air pollution; PM2.5; bioaerosols; microvascular function; lung function; inflammation
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Karottki, D.G.; Spilak, M.; Frederiksen, M.; Jovanovic Andersen, Z.; Madsen, A.M.; Ketzel, M.; Massling, A.; Gunnarsen, L.; Møller, P.; Loft, S. Indoor and Outdoor Exposure to Ultrafine, Fine and Microbiologically Derived Particulate Matter Related to Cardiovascular and Respiratory Effects in a Panel of Elderly Urban Citizens. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1667-1686.

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