Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Alterations in Newborns with Prenatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke
AbstractNewborns exposed to maternal cigarette smoke (CS) in utero have an increased risk of developing chronic diseases, cancer, and acquiring decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Although the literature reports many deleterious effects associated with maternal cigarette smoking on the fetus, the molecular alterations and mechanisms of action are not yet clear. Smoking may act directly on nuclear DNA by inducing mutations or epigenetic modifications. Recent studies also indicate that smoking may act on mitochondrial DNA by inducing a change in the number of copies to make up for the damage caused by smoking on the respiratory chain and lack of energy. In addition, individual genetic susceptibility plays a significant role in determining the effects of smoking during development. Furthermore, prior exposure of paternal and maternal gametes to cigarette smoke may affect the health of the developing individual, not only the in utero exposure. This review examines the genetic and epigenetic alterations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA associated with smoke exposure during the most sensitive periods of development (prior to conception, prenatal and early postnatal) and assesses how such changes may have consequences for both fetal growth and development. View Full-Text
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Pirini, F.; Guida, E.; Lawson, F.; Mancinelli, A.; Guerrero-Preston, R. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Alterations in Newborns with Prenatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1135-1155.
Pirini F, Guida E, Lawson F, Mancinelli A, Guerrero-Preston R. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Alterations in Newborns with Prenatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015; 12(2):1135-1155.Chicago/Turabian Style
Pirini, Francesca; Guida, Elisa; Lawson, Fahcina; Mancinelli, Andrea; Guerrero-Preston, Rafael. 2015. "Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Alterations in Newborns with Prenatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 12, no. 2: 1135-1155.