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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(2), 1135-1155; doi:10.3390/ijerph120201135

Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Alterations in Newborns with Prenatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke

1
Head and Neck Cancer Research Division, Otolaryngology Department, School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
2
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, The University of Puerto Rico, San Juan 00936, Puerto Rico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 January 2015 / Published: 22 January 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [252 KB, uploaded 26 January 2015]

Abstract

Newborns exposed to maternal cigarette smoke (CS) in utero have an increased risk of developing chronic diseases, cancer, and acquiring decreased cognitive function in adulthood. Although the literature reports many deleterious effects associated with maternal cigarette smoking on the fetus, the molecular alterations and mechanisms of action are not yet clear. Smoking may act directly on nuclear DNA by inducing mutations or epigenetic modifications. Recent studies also indicate that smoking may act on mitochondrial DNA by inducing a change in the number of copies to make up for the damage caused by smoking on the respiratory chain and lack of energy. In addition, individual genetic susceptibility plays a significant role in determining the effects of smoking during development. Furthermore, prior exposure of paternal and maternal gametes to cigarette smoke may affect the health of the developing individual, not only the in utero exposure. This review examines the genetic and epigenetic alterations in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA associated with smoke exposure during the most sensitive periods of development (prior to conception, prenatal and early postnatal) and assesses how such changes may have consequences for both fetal growth and development. View Full-Text
Keywords: maternal cigarette smoke effects; epigenomics effects; mitochondrial DNA; in utero exposures; DNA methylation; environmental cigarette smoke effects; molecular biomarkers maternal cigarette smoke effects; epigenomics effects; mitochondrial DNA; in utero exposures; DNA methylation; environmental cigarette smoke effects; molecular biomarkers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pirini, F.; Guida, E.; Lawson, F.; Mancinelli, A.; Guerrero-Preston, R. Nuclear and Mitochondrial DNA Alterations in Newborns with Prenatal Exposure to Cigarette Smoke. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1135-1155.

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