Next Article in Journal
Association between Eight Functional Polymorphisms and Haplotypes in the Cholesterol Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) Gene and Dyslipidemia in National Minority Adults in the Far West Region of China
Previous Article in Journal
An Autistic Endophenotype and Testosterone Are Involved in an Atypical Decline in Selective Attention and Visuospatial Processing in Middle-Aged Women
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15967-15978; doi:10.3390/ijerph121215035

Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise

1
Occupational Health Center, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
2
Department of Psychology, Chung-Shan Medical University, Taichung 402, Taiwan
3
Room of Clinical Psychology, Chung-Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung 402, Taiwan
4
Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
5
Department of Occupational Medicine, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua 500, Taiwan
6
Department of Leisure Services Management, Chaoyang University of Technology, Taichung 413, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 11 October 2015 / Revised: 10 December 2015 / Accepted: 11 December 2015 / Published: 16 December 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [211 KB, uploaded 16 December 2015]

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol; health promotion; metabolic syndrome; nutrition and exercise behaviors; smoking; worker alcohol; health promotion; metabolic syndrome; nutrition and exercise behaviors; smoking; worker
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Huang, J.-H.; Li, R.-H.; Huang, S.-L.; Sia, H.-K.; Chen, Y.-L.; Tang, F.-C. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 15967-15978.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top