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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15692-15705; doi:10.3390/ijerph121215011

Sex-Dependent Depression-Like Behavior Induced by Respiratory Administration of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles

1
Key Laboratory of Environmental Medicine Engineering, Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, China
2
Department of Environmental Health and Endemic Disease Control, Jiangsu Provincial, Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Nanjing 210009, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 14 September 2015 / Revised: 1 December 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
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Abstract

Ultrafine aluminum oxide, which are abundant in ambient and involved occupational environments, are associated with neurobehavioral alterations. However, few studies have focused on the effect of sex differences following exposure to environmental Al2O3 ultrafine particles. In the present study, male and female mice were exposed to Al2O3 nanoparticles (NPs) through a respiratory route. Only the female mice showed depression-like behavior. Although no obvious pathological changes were observed in mice brain tissues, the neurotransmitter and voltage-gated ion channel related gene expression, as well as the small molecule metabolites in the cerebral cortex, were differentially modulated between male and female mice. Both mental disorder-involved gene expression levels and metabolomics analysis results strongly suggested that glutamate pathways were implicated in sex differentiation induced by Al2O3 NPs. Results demonstrated the potential mechanism of environmental ultrafine particle-induced depression-like behavior and the importance of sex dimorphism in the toxic research of environmental chemicals. View Full-Text
Keywords: depressive; nanoparticles; glutamate; aluminum oxide; sex difference depressive; nanoparticles; glutamate; aluminum oxide; sex difference
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, X.; Xu, Y.; Zhou, L.; Zhang, C.; Meng, Q.; Wu, S.; Wang, S.; Ding, Z.; Chen, X.; Li, X.; Chen, R. Sex-Dependent Depression-Like Behavior Induced by Respiratory Administration of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 15692-15705.

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