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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15673-15682; doi:10.3390/ijerph121215012

Investigation of the Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) on Apoptosis and Cell Cycle in a Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Liver Cell Line

Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100123, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 9 June 2015 / Revised: 19 October 2015 / Accepted: 26 November 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
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Abstract

This study aimed to explore the effects of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) on apoptosis and cell cycle in a zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver cell line (ZFL). Treatment groups included a control group, PFOA-IC50, PFOA-IC80, PFOS-IC50 and PFOS-IC80 groups. IC50 and IC80 concentrations were identified by cellular modeling and MTT assays. mRNA levels of p53, Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 and NF-κB p65 were detected by qPCR. Cell apoptosis and cell cycle were detected by flow cytometry and the protein levels of p53, Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 and NF-κB p65 were determined by western blotting. Both PFOA and PFOS inhibited the growth of zebrafish liver cells, and the inhibition rate of PFOS was higher than that of PFOA. Bcl-2 expression levels in the four groups were significantly higher than the control group and Bcl-2 increased significantly in the PFOA-IC80 group. However, the expression levels of Bax in the four treatment groups were higher than the control group. The percentage of cell apoptosis increased significantly with the treatment of PFOA and PFOS (p < 0.05). Cell cycle and cell proliferation were blocked in both the PFOA-IC80 and PFOS-IC80 groups, indicating that PFOA-IC80 and PFOS-IC50 enhanced apoptosis in ZFL cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA); perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); zebrafish liver cells (ZFL); apoptosis perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA); perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS); zebrafish liver cells (ZFL); apoptosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cui, Y.; Liu, W.; Xie, W.; Yu, W.; Wang, C.; Chen, H. Investigation of the Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) on Apoptosis and Cell Cycle in a Zebrafish (Danio rerio) Liver Cell Line. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 15673-15682.

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