Next Article in Journal
Challenges and Opportunities for Advancing Work on Climate Change and Public Health
Next Article in Special Issue
Active Travel by Built Environment and Lifecycle Stage: Case Study of Osaka Metropolitan Area
Previous Article in Journal
Comparison of Highly Resolved Model-Based Exposure Metrics for Traffic-Related Air Pollutants to Support Environmental Health Studies
Previous Article in Special Issue
The Effects of the Urban Built Environment on Mental Health: A Cohort Study in a Large Northern Italian City
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15626-15648; doi:10.3390/ijerph121215008

Active Commuting Behaviors in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations

Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Stockholm SE-114 86, Sweden
Unit for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Umeå University, Umeå SE-901 87, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Harry Timmermans, Astrid Kemperman and Pauline van den Berg
Received: 31 August 2015 / Revised: 24 November 2015 / Accepted: 25 November 2015 / Published: 9 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Impacts of the Built Environment on Public Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5645 KB, uploaded 23 December 2015]   |  


Active commuting between home and place of work or study is often cited as an interesting source of physical activity in a public health perspective. However, knowledge about these behaviors is meager. This was therefore studied in adult active commuters (n = 1872) in Greater Stockholm, Sweden, a Nordic metropolitan setting. They received questionnaires and individually adjusted maps to draw their normal commuting route. Three different modality groups were identified in men and women: single-mode cyclists and pedestrians (those who only cycle or walk, respectively) and dual-mode commuters (those who alternately walk or cycle). Some gender differences were observed in trip distances, frequencies, and velocities. A large majority of the commuting trip durations met the minimum health recommendation of at least 10-minute-long activity bouts. The median single-mode pedestrians and dual-mode commuters met or were close to the recommended weekly physical activity levels of at least 150 minutes most of the year, whereas the single-mode cyclists did so only during spring–mid-fall. A high total number of trips per year (range of medians: 230–390) adds to the value in a health perspective. To fully grasp active commuting behaviors in future studies, both walking and cycling should be assessed over different seasons and ideally over the whole year. View Full-Text
Keywords: walking; bicycling; commuting; distance; duration; velocity; frequency; seasonality; modality walking; bicycling; commuting; distance; duration; velocity; frequency; seasonality; modality

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Stigell, E.; Schantz, P. Active Commuting Behaviors in a Nordic Metropolitan Setting in Relation to Modality, Gender, and Health Recommendations. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 15626-15648.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top