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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15540-15549; doi:10.3390/ijerph121215001

Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V

1
Hallym Research Institute of Clinical Epidemiology, Hallym University, 1 Hallymdaehak-gil, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-702, Korea
2
Taean Institute of Environmental Health Center, 1952-16 Seohaero, Taean-eup, Taean-gun, Chungcheongnam-do 32148, Korea
3
Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Hallym University, 1 Hallymdaehak-gil, Chuncheon, Gangwon-do 200-702, Korea
4
College of Nursing, Hanzhong University, 200 Jiyang-gil, Donghae, Gangwon-do, 240-713, Korea
5
Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Dankook University, 119 Dandae-ro, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-714, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 19 September 2015 / Revised: 27 November 2015 / Accepted: 3 December 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
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Abstract

In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010–2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min–max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0–180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: smoking; alcohol intake; excessive sodium intake; KNHANES smoking; alcohol intake; excessive sodium intake; KNHANES
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MDPI and ACS Style

Choi, K.-H.; Park, M.-S.; Kim, J.A.; Lim, J.-A. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 15540-15549.

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