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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 15110-15117; doi:10.3390/ijerph121214964

Occurrence and Profiles of the Artificial Endocrine Disruptor Bisphenol A and Natural Endocrine Disruptor Phytoestrogens in Urine from Children in China

Tianjin Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Tianjin 300171, China
Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria/Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution Control, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071, China
School of Environmental Science and Safety Engineering, Tianjin University of Technology, Tianjin 300384, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Huixiao Hong
Received: 17 October 2015 / Revised: 15 November 2015 / Accepted: 20 November 2015 / Published: 30 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endocrine Disruptors and Public Health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [340 KB, uploaded 30 November 2015]   |  


Background: Exposure to artificial or natural endocrine disruptors, such as bisphenol A (BPA) and phytoestrogens has been demonstrated to have health effects, especially in children. Biomonitoring of BPA and phytoestrogens in human urine can be used to assess the intake levels of these compounds. Methods: In this study, BPA and phytoestrogens in urine specimens (n = 256) collected from children in China were measured by liquid chromatography (LC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Results: BPA was detected in most specimens, with a geometric mean concentration of 1.58 ng/mL. For the first time, levels of urinary phytoestrogens in Chinese children were reported. Daidzein and enterolactone are the typical isoflavones and lignans compounds in urine, respectively. Conclusions: Relatively high levels of urinary BPA indicate an increasing risk of BPA exposure to Chinese children. Urinary concentrations of daidzein in Chinese children are higher when compared with those reported in the U.S. children, while concentrations of urinary enterolactone and enterodiols are significantly lower. This suggests a significant difference in phytoestrogen intake between the children from China and from the U.S. View Full-Text
Keywords: bisphenol A; phytoestrogens; biomonitoring; children; China bisphenol A; phytoestrogens; biomonitoring; children; China

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, M.; Duan, Z.; Wu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Li, K.; Wang, L. Occurrence and Profiles of the Artificial Endocrine Disruptor Bisphenol A and Natural Endocrine Disruptor Phytoestrogens in Urine from Children in China. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 15110-15117.

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