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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(12), 16096-16109; doi:10.3390/ijerph121215044

Classifying Natural Waters with the Forel-Ule Colour Index System: Results, Applications, Correlations and Crowdsourcing

1
Department of Marine Sciences, Avery Point Campus, University of Connecticut, 1080 Shennecosset Road, Groton, CT 06340, USA
2
Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Marine Environment-Terramare, Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg, Schleusenstraße 1, 26382 Wilhelmshaven, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Received: 4 November 2015 / Revised: 14 December 2015 / Accepted: 15 December 2015 / Published: 18 December 2015
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Abstract

Societal awareness of changes in the environment and climate has grown rapidly, and there is a need to engage citizens in gathering relevant scientific information to monitor environmental changes due to recognition that citizens are a potential source of critical information. The apparent colour of natural waters is one aspect of our aquatic environment that is easy to detect and an essential complementary optical water quality indicator. Here we present the results and explore the utility of the Forel-Ule colour index (FUI) scale as a proxy for different properties of natural waters. A FUI scale is used to distinguish the apparent colours of different natural surface water masses. Correlation analysis was completed in an effort to determine the constituents of natural waters related to FUI. Strong correlations with turbidity, Secchi-disk depth, and coloured dissolved organic material suggest the FUI is a good indicator of changes related to other constituents of water. The increase in the number of tools capable of determining the FUI colours, (i) ocean colour remote sensing products; (ii) a handheld scale; and (iii) a mobile device app, make it a versatile relative measure of water quality. It has the potential to provide higher spatial and temporal resolution of data for a modernized classification of optical water quality. This FUI colour system has been favoured by several scientists in the last century because it is affordable and easy to use and provides indicative information about the colour of water and the water constituents producing that colour. It is therefore within the scope of a growing interest in the application and usefulness of basic measurement methodologies with the potential to provide timely benchmark information about the environment to the public, scientists and policymakers. View Full-Text
Keywords: apparent colour of water; remote sensing; Forel-Ule index; citizen science; water quality apparent colour of water; remote sensing; Forel-Ule index; citizen science; water quality
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Garaba, S.P.; Friedrichs, A.; Voß, D.; Zielinski, O. Classifying Natural Waters with the Forel-Ule Colour Index System: Results, Applications, Correlations and Crowdsourcing. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 16096-16109.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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