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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 14557-14570; doi:10.3390/ijerph121114557

Family Smoking, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home and Family Unhappiness in Children

1
School of Public Health, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
2
School of Nursing, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 6 October 2015 / Revised: 6 November 2015 / Accepted: 10 November 2015 / Published: 13 November 2015
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Abstract

Tobacco use adversely affects many aspects of well-being and is disliked by non-smokers. However, its association with family happiness is unknown. We investigated the associations of family unhappiness with smoking in family members and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home in Hong Kong children. In a school-based survey in 2012–2013, 1238 primary school students (mean age 8.5 years, standard deviation 0.9; 42.6% boys) reported family smoking, SHS exposure at home and whether their families had any unpleasant experience caused by smoking or SHS in the past 30 days (tobacco-related unpleasant experience), and rated the overall level of happiness in their families (family unhappiness). Multivariable logistic regression was used to study the associations of tobacco-related unpleasant experience and family unhappiness with family smoking and SHS exposure at home. Tobacco-related unpleasant experience and family unhappiness were reported by 27.5% and 16.5% of students. Unpleasant experience was more strongly associated with family smoking than SHS exposure at home. Family unhappiness was associated with both family smoking (odds ratio 2.37; 95% confidence interval 1.51–3.71) and SHS exposure at home (1.82; 1.39–2.40). These results suggest a previously neglected possible impact of tobacco use on family happiness. View Full-Text
Keywords: happiness; secondhand smoke; family; children happiness; secondhand smoke; family; children
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, J.J.; Ho, S.Y.; Au, W.M.; Wang, M.P.; Lam, T.H. Family Smoking, Exposure to Secondhand Smoke at Home and Family Unhappiness in Children. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 14557-14570.

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