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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(11), 13678-13695; doi:10.3390/ijerph121113678

A Novel High-Throughput Approach to Measure Hydroxyl Radicals Induced by Airborne Particulate Matter

1
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
2
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pharmacy College, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
3
Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
4
Department of Pharmacology, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
5
Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 14 August 2015 / Revised: 6 October 2015 / Accepted: 20 October 2015 / Published: 28 October 2015
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Abstract

Oxidative stress is one of the key mechanisms linking ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure with various adverse health effects. The oxidative potential of PM has been used to characterize the ability of PM induced oxidative stress. Hydroxyl radical (•OH) is the most destructive radical produced by PM. However, there is currently no high-throughput approach which can rapidly measure PM-induced •OH for a large number of samples with an automated system. This study evaluated four existing molecular probes (disodium terephthalate, 3′-p-(aminophenyl)fluorescein, coumarin-3-carboxylic acid, and sodium benzoate) for their applicability to measure •OH induced by PM in a high-throughput cell-free system using fluorescence techniques, based on both our experiments and on an assessment of the physicochemical properties of the probes reported in the literature. Disodium terephthalate (TPT) was the most applicable molecular probe to measure •OH induced by PM, due to its high solubility, high stability of the corresponding fluorescent product (i.e., 2-hydroxyterephthalic acid), high yield compared with the other molecular probes, and stable fluorescence intensity in a wide range of pH environments. TPT was applied in a high-throughput format to measure PM (NIST 1648a)-induced •OH, in phosphate buffered saline. The formed fluorescent product was measured at designated time points up to 2 h. The fluorescent product of TPT had a detection limit of 17.59 nM. The soluble fraction of PM contributed approximately 76.9% of the •OH induced by total PM, and the soluble metal ions of PM contributed 57.4% of the overall •OH formation. This study provides a promising cost-effective high-throughput method to measure •OH induced by PM on a routine basis. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydroxyl radical; oxidative potential; oxidative stress; particulate matter; air pollution; high throughput analysis; molecular probe; exposure assessment hydroxyl radical; oxidative potential; oxidative stress; particulate matter; air pollution; high throughput analysis; molecular probe; exposure assessment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Son, Y.; Mishin, V.; Welsh, W.; Lu, S.-E.; Laskin, J.D.; Kipen, H.; Meng, Q. A Novel High-Throughput Approach to Measure Hydroxyl Radicals Induced by Airborne Particulate Matter. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 13678-13695.

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