Next Article in Journal
Probable Post Traumatic Stress Disorder in Kenya and Its Associated Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Household Survey
Previous Article in Journal
Association of Roadway Proximity with Indoor Air Pollution in a Peri-Urban Community in Lima, Peru
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(10), 13482-13493; doi:10.3390/ijerph121013482

Biomonitoring of Lead, Cadmium, Total Mercury, and Methylmercury Levels in Maternal Blood and in Umbilical Cord Blood at Birth in South Korea

1
Department of Preventive Medicine and Dong-A University Heavy Metal Exposure Environmental Health Center, Dong-A University College of Medicine, 49201 Busan, Korea
2
Dong-A University Heavy Metal Exposure Environmental Health Center, Dong-A University College of Medicine, 49201 Busan, Korea
3
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Ilsin Christian Hospital, 48724 Busan, Korea
4
New-born Obstetrics Clinic, 49340 Busan, Korea
5
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, 49201 Busan, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 8 August 2015 / Revised: 22 October 2015 / Accepted: 22 October 2015 / Published: 26 October 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1063 KB, uploaded 26 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

With rising concerns of heavy metal exposure in pregnancy and early childhood, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between the lead, cadmium, mercury, and methylmercury blood levels in pregnancy and neonatal period. The study population included 104 mothers and their children pairs who completed both baseline maternal blood sampling at the second trimester and umbilical cord blood sampling at birth. The geometric mean maternal blood levels of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury at the second trimester were 1.02 ± 1.39 µg/dL, 0.61 ± 1.51 µg/L, 2.97 ± 1.45 µg/L, and 2.39 ± 1.45 µg/L, respectively, and in the newborns, these levels at birth were 0.71 ± 1.42 µg/dL, 0.01 ± 5.31 µg/L, 4.44 ± 1.49 µg/L, and 3.67 ± 1.51 µg/L, respectively. The mean ratios of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury levels in the newborns to those in the mothers were 0.72, 0.04, 1.76, and 1.81, respectively. The levels of most heavy metals in pregnant women and infants were higher in this study than in studies from industrialized western countries. The placenta appears to protect fetuses from cadmium; however, total mercury and methylmercury were able to cross the placenta and accumulate in fetuses. View Full-Text
Keywords: heavy metals; lead; cadmium; mercury; methylmercury; biomonitoring; pregnancy; umbilical cord heavy metals; lead; cadmium; mercury; methylmercury; biomonitoring; pregnancy; umbilical cord
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, Y.-M.; Chung, J.-Y.; An, H.S.; Park, S.Y.; Kim, B.-G.; Bae, J.W.; Han, M.; Cho, Y.J.; Hong, Y.-S. Biomonitoring of Lead, Cadmium, Total Mercury, and Methylmercury Levels in Maternal Blood and in Umbilical Cord Blood at Birth in South Korea. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 13482-13493.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top