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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12(1), 354-370; doi:10.3390/ijerph120100354

Identifying Environmental Risk Factors of Cholera in a Coastal Area with Geospatial Technologies

1,* , 1,†
,
2,†
and
2,†
1
State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Institute of Remote Sensing and Digital Earth, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
2
State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Infectious Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 102206, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul B. Tchounwou
Received: 23 July 2014 / Accepted: 15 December 2014 / Published: 29 December 2014
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Abstract

Satellites contribute significantly to environmental quality and public health. Environmental factors are important indicators for the prediction of disease outbreaks. This study reveals the environmental factors associated with cholera in Zhejiang, a coastal province of China, using both Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic information System (GIS). The analysis validated the correlation between the indirect satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH) and ocean chlorophyll concentration (OCC) and the local cholera magnitude based on a ten-year monthly data from the year 1999 to 2008. Cholera magnitude has been strongly affected by the concurrent variables of SST and SSH, while OCC has a one-month time lag effect. A cholera prediction model has been established based on the sea environmental factors. The results of hot spot analysis showed the local cholera magnitude in counties significantly associated with the estuaries and rivers. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholera; environmental factors; remote sensing; geographic information system (GIS); spatial analysis cholera; environmental factors; remote sensing; geographic information system (GIS); spatial analysis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, M.; Cao, C.; Wang, D.; Kan, B. Identifying Environmental Risk Factors of Cholera in a Coastal Area with Geospatial Technologies. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 354-370.

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