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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(9), 9811-9821; doi:10.3390/ijerph110909811

Evaluation of Immunomagnetic Separation for the Detection of Salmonella in Surface Waters by Polymerase Chain Reaction

1
Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Tungs' Taichung MetroHarbor Hospital, Taichung 435, Taiwan
2
Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Chiayi 621, Taiwan
3
Department of Radiology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
4
Department of Ophthalmology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
5
General Surgery, Surgical Department, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei 112, Taiwan
6
Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuan-Pei University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 May 2014 / Revised: 10 September 2014 / Accepted: 12 September 2014 / Published: 19 September 2014
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Abstract

Salmonella spp. is associated with fecal pollution and capable of surviving for long periods in aquatic environments. Instead of the traditional, time-consuming biochemical detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) allows rapid identification of Salmonella directly concentrated from water samples. However, prevalence of Salmonella may be underestimated because of the vulnerability of PCR to various environmental chemicals like humic acid, compounded by the fact that various DNA polymerases have different susceptibility to humic acid. Because immunomagnetic separation (IMS) theoretically could isolate Salmonella from other microbes and facilitate removal of aquatic PCR inhibitors of different sizes, this study aims to compare the efficiency of conventional PCR combined with immunomagnetic separation (IMS) for Salmonella detection within a moderately polluted watershed. In our study, the positive rate was increased from 17.6% to 47% with nearly ten-fold improvement in the detection limit. These results suggest the sensitivity of Salmonella detection could be enhanced by IMS, particularly in low quality surface waters. Due to its effects on clearance of aquatic pollutants, IMS may be suitable for most DNA polymerases for Salmonella detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: aquatic environment; immunomagnetic separation (IMS); Salmonella; PCR aquatic environment; immunomagnetic separation (IMS); Salmonella; PCR
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, C.-Y.; Hsu, B.-M.; Chang, T.-Y.; Hsu, T.-K.; Shen, S.-M.; Chiu, Y.-C.; Wang, H.-J.; Ji, W.-T.; Fan, C.-W.; Chen, J.-L. Evaluation of Immunomagnetic Separation for the Detection of Salmonella in Surface Waters by Polymerase Chain Reaction. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 9811-9821.

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