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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(6), 6314-6334; doi:10.3390/ijerph110606314

Exploring Childhood Lead Exposure through GIS: A Review of the Recent Literature

Department of Earth Sciences, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152, USA
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Received: 8 March 2014 / Revised: 22 May 2014 / Accepted: 6 June 2014 / Published: 18 June 2014
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Abstract

Childhood exposure to lead remains a critical health control problem in the US. Integration of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) into childhood lead exposure studies significantly enhanced identifying lead hazards in the environment and determining at risk children. Research indicates that the toxic threshold for lead exposure was updated three times in the last four decades: 60 to 30 micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL) in 1975, 25 µg/dL in 1985, and 10 µb/dL in 1991. These changes revealed the extent of lead poisoning. By 2012 it was evident that no safe blood lead threshold for the adverse effects of lead on children had been identified and the Center for Disease Control (CDC) currently uses a reference value of 5 µg/dL. Review of the recent literature on GIS-based studies suggests that numerous environmental risk factors might be critical for lead exposure. New GIS-based studies are used in surveillance data management, risk analysis, lead exposure visualization, and community intervention strategies where geographically-targeted, specific intervention measures are taken. View Full-Text
Keywords: childhood lead poisoning; geographic distribution; screening efforts; risk modeling; GIS childhood lead poisoning; geographic distribution; screening efforts; risk modeling; GIS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Akkus, C.; Ozdenerol, E. Exploring Childhood Lead Exposure through GIS: A Review of the Recent Literature. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 6314-6334.

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