Next Article in Journal
Next Article in Special Issue
Previous Article in Journal
Previous Article in Special Issue
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(5), 5094-5112; doi:10.3390/ijerph110505094
Article

Evaluation of the Impact of Low Emission Zone and Heavy Traffic Ban in Munich (Germany) on the Reduction of PM10 in Ambient Air

1,* , 1
, 1
, 2
, 3
, 3
, 3,4
 and 3,4
Received: 31 March 2014; in revised form: 5 May 2014 / Accepted: 5 May 2014 / Published: 13 May 2014
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [896 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]
Abstract: Concentrations of ambient fine particles (PM10: particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 µm) are still exceeding current air quality standards in many European cities. In Munich (Germany), low emission zone and transit bans for heavy-duty vehicles were introduced in 2008 aiming at reduction of traffic emissions contribution to PM10. The effects of those measures on PM10 mass concentrations in Munich were investigated with a semiparametric regression model for modeling PM10 levels adjusted for time, background pollution, public holidays and wind direction. The reduction of PM10 concentration after the introduction of the measures was larger at a traffic monitoring site (13.0 %, 19.6 % in summer, and 6.8 % in winter) and smaller in urban background (4.5 %, 5.7 % in summer, and 3.2 % in winter). The effect was most pronounced on Fridays and on the weekends in summer.
Keywords: fine particles; PM10; low emission zone; truck ban; Munich fine particles; PM10; low emission zone; truck ban; Munich
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Export to BibTeX |
EndNote


MDPI and ACS Style

Fensterer, V.; Küchenhoff, H.; Maier, V.; Wichmann, H.-E.; Breitner, S.; Peters, A.; Gu, J.; Cyrys, J. Evaluation of the Impact of Low Emission Zone and Heavy Traffic Ban in Munich (Germany) on the Reduction of PM10 in Ambient Air. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 5094-5112.

AMA Style

Fensterer V, Küchenhoff H, Maier V, Wichmann H-E, Breitner S, Peters A, Gu J, Cyrys J. Evaluation of the Impact of Low Emission Zone and Heavy Traffic Ban in Munich (Germany) on the Reduction of PM10 in Ambient Air. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(5):5094-5112.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Fensterer, Veronika; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Maier, Verena; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Breitner, Susanne; Peters, Annette; Gu, Jianwei; Cyrys, Josef. 2014. "Evaluation of the Impact of Low Emission Zone and Heavy Traffic Ban in Munich (Germany) on the Reduction of PM10 in Ambient Air." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 5: 5094-5112.



Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert