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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(4), 3661-3677; doi:10.3390/ijerph110403661

A Biomarker Found in Cadmium Exposed Residents of Thailand by Metabolome Analysis

1
Environmental Science Program, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
2
Department of Public Health, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
3
Mae Sot General Hospital, Mae Sot District, Tak 63110, Thailand
4
Department of Nursing, Kanazawa Medical University, Uchinada, Ishikawa 920-0293, Japan
5
Japan Clinical Metabolomics Institute, Kahoku, Ishikawa 929-1174, Japan
6
Department of Forensic Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 February 2014 / Revised: 24 March 2014 / Accepted: 24 March 2014 / Published: 2 April 2014
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Abstract

First, the urinary metabolic profiling by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was performed to compare ten cadmium (Cd) toxicosis cases from a Cd-polluted area in Mae Sot (Thailand) with gender-matched healthy controls. Orthogonal partial list square-discrimination analysis was used to identify new biomarker candidates in highly Cd exposed toxicosis cases with remarkable renal tubular dysfunction. The results of the first step of this study showed that urinary citrate was a negative marker and myo-inositol was a positive marker for Cd toxicosis in Thailand. In the second step, we measured urinary citrate in the residents (168 Cd-exposed subjects and 100 controls) and found significantly lower levels of urinary citrate and higher ratios of calcium/citrate and magnesium/citrate, which are risk factors for nephrolithiasis, in highly Cd-exposed residents. Additionally, this inverse association of urinary citrate with urinary Cd was observed after adjustment for age, smoking and renal tubular dysfunction, suggesting a direct effect of Cd on citrate metabolism. These results indicate that urinary citrate is a useful biomarker for the adverse health effects of Cd exposure in a Thai population with a high prevalence of nephrolithiasis. View Full-Text
Keywords: cadmium; metabolomics; orthogonal partial list square-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA); urinary citrate; Thailand cadmium; metabolomics; orthogonal partial list square-discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA); urinary citrate; Thailand
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Suvagandha, D.; Nishijo, M.; Swaddiwudhipong, W.; Honda, R.; Ohse, M.; Kuhara, T.; Nakagawa, H.; Ruangyuttikarn, W. A Biomarker Found in Cadmium Exposed Residents of Thailand by Metabolome Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3661-3677.

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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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