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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 3233-3255; doi:10.3390/ijerph110303233
Article

Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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1 Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, Brno CZ-613 00, Czech Republic 2 Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, Brno CZ-616 00, Czech Republic 3 Department of Pathological Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Komenskeho namesti 2, Brno CZ-662 43, Czech Republic 4 Karel Englis College, Sujanovo nam. 356/1, Brno CZ-602 00, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 January 2014 / Revised: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
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Abstract

There is an arising and concerning issue in the field of bacterial resistance, which is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus non-resistant strain and strains resistant to cadmium or lead ions. Metal resistant strains were created by the gradual addition of 2 mM solution of metal ions (cadmium or lead) to the S. aureus culture. An increasing antimicrobial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 150, 225 and 300 µM) on the resistant strains was observed using a method of growth curves. A significant growth inhibition (compared to control) of cadmium resistant cells was observed in the presence of all the four different antibiotics. On the other hand, the addition of streptomycin and ampicillin did not inhibit the growth of lead resistant strain. Other antibiotics were still toxic to the bacterial cells. Significant differences in the morphology of cell walls were indicated by changes in the cell shape. Our data show that the presence of metal ions in the urban environment may contribute to the development of bacterial strain resistance to other substances including antibiotics, which would have an impact on public health.
Keywords: S. aureus; antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics; metal resistance; cross resistance; growth curves; inhibition concentrations; spectrophotometry S. aureus; antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics; metal resistance; cross resistance; growth curves; inhibition concentrations; spectrophotometry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Chudobova, D.; Dostalova, S.; Blazkova, I.; Michalek, P.; Ruttkay-Nedecky, B.; Sklenar, M.; Nejdl, L.; Kudr, J.; Gumulec, J.; Tmejova, K.; Konecna, M.; Vaculovicova, M.; Hynek, D.; Masarik, M.; Kynicky, J.; Kizek, R.; Adam, V. Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3233-3255.

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