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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(3), 3233-3255; doi:10.3390/ijerph110303233
Article

Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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Received: 7 January 2014; in revised form: 18 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 19 March 2014
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Abstract: There is an arising and concerning issue in the field of bacterial resistance, which is confirmed by the number of deaths associated with drug-resistant bacterial infections. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus non-resistant strain and strains resistant to cadmium or lead ions. Metal resistant strains were created by the gradual addition of 2 mM solution of metal ions (cadmium or lead) to the S. aureus culture. An increasing antimicrobial effect of ampicillin, streptomycin, penicillin and tetracycline (0, 10, 25, 50, 75, 150, 225 and 300 µM) on the resistant strains was observed using a method of growth curves. A significant growth inhibition (compared to control) of cadmium resistant cells was observed in the presence of all the four different antibiotics. On the other hand, the addition of streptomycin and ampicillin did not inhibit the growth of lead resistant strain. Other antibiotics were still toxic to the bacterial cells. Significant differences in the morphology of cell walls were indicated by changes in the cell shape. Our data show that the presence of metal ions in the urban environment may contribute to the development of bacterial strain resistance to other substances including antibiotics, which would have an impact on public health.
Keywords: S. aureus; antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics; metal resistance; cross resistance; growth curves; inhibition concentrations; spectrophotometry S. aureus; antimicrobial resistance; antibiotics; metal resistance; cross resistance; growth curves; inhibition concentrations; spectrophotometry
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Chudobova, D.; Dostalova, S.; Blazkova, I.; Michalek, P.; Ruttkay-Nedecky, B.; Sklenar, M.; Nejdl, L.; Kudr, J.; Gumulec, J.; Tmejova, K.; Konecna, M.; Vaculovicova, M.; Hynek, D.; Masarik, M.; Kynicky, J.; Kizek, R.; Adam, V. Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 3233-3255.

AMA Style

Chudobova D, Dostalova S, Blazkova I, Michalek P, Ruttkay-Nedecky B, Sklenar M, Nejdl L, Kudr J, Gumulec J, Tmejova K, Konecna M, Vaculovicova M, Hynek D, Masarik M, Kynicky J, Kizek R, Adam V. Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(3):3233-3255.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chudobova, Dagmar; Dostalova, Simona; Blazkova, Iva; Michalek, Petr; Ruttkay-Nedecky, Branislav; Sklenar, Matej; Nejdl, Lukas; Kudr, Jiri; Gumulec, Jaromir; Tmejova, Katerina; Konecna, Marie; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Hynek, David; Masarik, Michal; Kynicky, Jindrich; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech. 2014. "Effect of Ampicillin, Streptomycin, Penicillin and Tetracycline on Metal Resistant and Non-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 3: 3233-3255.



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