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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(10), 10444-10460; doi:10.3390/ijerph111010444

Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Blood Plasma from Residents of Malaria-Endemic Communities in Chiapas, Mexico

1
El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Carretera Antiguo Aeropuerto Km. 2.5, C.P. 30700 Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico
2
Centro Regional de Investigación en Salud Pública, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, 19 Poniente y 4ª Norte S/N, C.P. 30700 Tapachula, Chiapas, Mexico
3
Alterra, Wageningen University and Research Center, P.O. Box 47, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering, University of Canterbury, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch 8140, New Zealand
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 July 2014 / Revised: 22 September 2014 / Accepted: 25 September 2014 / Published: 10 October 2014
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Abstract

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides have been extensively used for pest control in agriculture and against malaria vectors in the region of Soconusco, Chiapas, in southern Mexico. Our study aimed to identify whether the inhabitants of four Soconusco communities at different locations (i.e., altitudes) and with different history of use of OC pesticides, have been similarly exposed to residues of these pesticides. In particular, we analyzed the potential relationship between levels of OC pesticides in plasma and the age, gender, and residence of the study population (n = 60). We detected seven pesticides in total (γ-HCH, β-HCH, heptachlor, p,pʹ-DDE, p,p'-DDT, β-endosulfan, endrin aldehyde). Of these, p,pʹ-DDE and β-endosulfan were the most frequently found (in 98% and 38% of the samples, respectively). The low-altitude (<20 m above sea level; masl) and mid-altitude (520 masl) locations had the highest levels of p,pʹ-DDE, with geometric means of 50.6 µg/L and 44.46 µg/L, respectively. The oldest subjects (>60 years) had the highest p,pʹ-DDE level (56.94 ± 57.81 µg/L) of all age groups, while men had higher p,pʹ-DDE (34.00 ± 46.76 µg/L) than women. Our results demonstrate that residents of the Soconusco region are exposed to p,pʹ-DDE because of high exposure to DDT in the past and current environmental exposure to this DDT-breakdown product. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental exposure; malaria; organochlorine pesticides; p,pʹ-DDE; β-endosulfan; Soconusco environmental exposure; malaria; organochlorine pesticides; p,pʹ-DDE; β-endosulfan; Soconusco
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Ruiz-Suárez, L.E.; Castro-Chan, R.A.; Rivero-Pérez, N.E.; Trejo-Acevedo, A.; Guillén-Navarro, G.K.; Geissen, V.; Bello-Mendoza, R. Levels of Organochlorine Pesticides in Blood Plasma from Residents of Malaria-Endemic Communities in Chiapas, Mexico. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 10444-10460.

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