Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11(1), 202-217; doi:10.3390/ijerph110100202
Article

Toxic Metal Concentrations in Cigarettes Obtained from U.S. Smokers in 2009: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey Cohort

1 Department of Health Behavior, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Elm and Carlton Streets, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA 2 Department of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of St Andrews, Irvine Building, North Street, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9AL, UK 3 Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC 29425, USA 4 Department of Psychology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada 5 Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Toronto, ON, M5G 0A3, Canada
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 November 2013; in revised form: 28 November 2013 / Accepted: 2 December 2013 / Published: 20 December 2013
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Abstract: Smoking-related diseases can be attributed to the inhalation of many different toxins, including heavy metals, which have a host of detrimental health effects. The current study reports the levels of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb) in cigarettes obtained from adult smokers participating in the 2009 wave of the ITC United States Survey (N = 320). The mean As, Cd, Cr, Ni, and Pb levels were 0.17, 0.86, 2.35, 2.21, and 0.44 µg/g, respectively. There were some differences in metal concentrations of cigarette brands produced by different manufacturers, suggesting differences in the source of tobaccos used by different companies. For Ni, there were significant pairwise differences between Philip Morris U.S. (PMUSA) and R.J. Reynolds (RJR) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), PMUSA and other manufacturer (OM) brands (PMUSA higher; p < 0.001), and RJR and OM brands (RJR higher; p = 0.006). For Cr, RJR brands had higher levels than did OM brands (p = 0.02). Levels of As, Cd, and Pb did not differ significantly across manufacturer groups (p > 0.10). Because of the variety of toxic heavy metals in cigarette tobacco, and their numerous negative health effects, metal content in cigarette tobacco should be reduced.
Keywords: metals; toxicity; tobacco; smoking

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MDPI and ACS Style

Caruso, R.V.; O'Connor, R.J.; Stephens, W.E.; Cummings, K.M.; Fong, G.T. Toxic Metal Concentrations in Cigarettes Obtained from U.S. Smokers in 2009: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey Cohort. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014, 11, 202-217.

AMA Style

Caruso RV, O'Connor RJ, Stephens WE, Cummings KM, Fong GT. Toxic Metal Concentrations in Cigarettes Obtained from U.S. Smokers in 2009: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey Cohort. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2014; 11(1):202-217.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Caruso, Rosalie V.; O'Connor, Richard J.; Stephens, W. E.; Cummings, K. M.; Fong, Geoffrey T. 2014. "Toxic Metal Concentrations in Cigarettes Obtained from U.S. Smokers in 2009: Results from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) United States Survey Cohort." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 11, no. 1: 202-217.

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