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Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
Joint UNC-NCSU Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA
The authors contributed equally to the work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 June 2013; in revised form: 4 September 2013 / Accepted: 5 September 2013 / Published: 23 September 2013
Abstract: Inhaled toxic aerosols of conventional cigarette smoke may impact not only the health of smokers, but also those exposed to second-stream smoke, especially children. Thus, less harmful cigarettes (LHCs), also called potential reduced exposure products (PREPs), or modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) have been designed by tobacco manufacturers to focus on the reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic components and toxicants in tobacco. However, some studies have pointed out that the new cigarette products may be actually more harmful than the conventional ones due to variations in puffing or post-puffing behavior, different physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled toxic aerosols, and longer exposure conditions. In order to understand the toxicological impact of tobacco smoke, it is essential for scientists, engineers and manufacturers to develop experiments, clinical investigations, and predictive numerical models for tracking the intake and deposition of toxicants of both LHCs and conventional cigarettes. Furthermore, to link inhaled toxicants to lung and other diseases, it is necessary to determine the physical mechanisms and parameters that have significant impacts on droplet/vapor transport and deposition. Complex mechanisms include droplet coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, vapor formation and changes in composition. Of interest are also different puffing behavior, smoke inlet conditions, subject geometries, and mass transfer of deposited material into systemic regions. This review article is intended to serve as an overview of contributions mainly published between 2009 and 2013, focusing on the potential health risks of toxicants in cigarette smoke, progress made in different approaches of impact analyses for inhaled toxic aerosols, as well as challenges and future directions.
Keywords: conventional or less harmful cigarettes; aerosol toxicology; cigarette smoke droplet/vapor deposition; second-hand smoke; impact analysis; computational fluid-particle dynamics
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Kleinstreuer, C.; Feng, Y. Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4454-4485.
Kleinstreuer C, Feng Y. Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(9):4454-4485.
Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu. 2013. "Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 9: 4454-4485.