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Environmental Drivers of West Nile Fever Epidemiology in Europe and Western Asia—A Review
Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Haifa, Mt. Carmel, Haifa 3498837, Israel
European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Tomtebodavägen 11A, Stockholm 17183, Sweden
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 June 2013; in revised form: 25 July 2013 / Accepted: 1 August 2013 / Published: 9 August 2013
Abstract: Abiotic and biotic conditions are both important determinants of West Nile Fever (WNF) epidemiology. Ambient temperature plays an important role in the growth rates of vector populations, the interval between blood meals, viral replication rates and transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV). The contribution of precipitation is more complex and less well understood. In this paper we discuss impacts of climatic parameters (temperature, relative humidity, precipitation) and other environmental drivers (such as bird migration, land use) on WNV transmission in Europe. WNV recently became established in southeastern Europe, with a large outbreak in the summer of 2010 and recurrent outbreaks in 2011 and 2012. Abundant competent mosquito vectors, bridge vectors, infected (viremic) migrating and local (amplifying) birds are all important characteristics of WNV transmission. In addition, certain key climatic factors, such as increased ambient temperatures, and by extension climate change, may also favor WNF transmission, and they should be taken into account when evaluating the risk of disease spread in the coming years. Monitoring epidemic precursors of WNF, such as significant temperature deviations in high risk areas, could be used to trigger vector control programs and public education campaigns.
Keywords: West Nile Virus; West Nile Fever; Europe; environmental drivers; epidemiology; climatic factors; climate change; bird migration; land use
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MDPI and ACS Style
Paz, S.; Semenza, J.C. Environmental Drivers of West Nile Fever Epidemiology in Europe and Western Asia—A Review. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 3543-3562.
Paz S, Semenza JC. Environmental Drivers of West Nile Fever Epidemiology in Europe and Western Asia—A Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(8):3543-3562.
Paz, Shlomit; Semenza, Jan C. 2013. "Environmental Drivers of West Nile Fever Epidemiology in Europe and Western Asia—A Review." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 8: 3543-3562.