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Lead Ions Encapsulated in Liposomes and Their Effect on Staphylococcus aureus
Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University in Brno, Zemedelska 1, Brno CZ-613 00, Czech Republic
Central European Institute of Technology, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 3058/10, Brno CZ-616 00, Czech Republic
Department of Ecology and Diseases of Game, Fish and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Hygiene and Ecology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Palackeho 1-3, Brno CZ-612 42, Czech Republic
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2013; in revised form: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 7 November 2013 / Published: 2 December 2013
Abstract: The aim of the study was the preparation of a liposome complex with encapsulated lead ions, which were electrochemically detected. In particular, experiments were focused on the potential of using an electrochemical method for the determination of free and liposome-encapsulated lead and determination of the encapsulation efficiency preventing the lead toxicity. Primarily, encapsulation of lead ions in liposomes and confirmation of successful encapsulation by electrochemical methods was done. Further, the reduction effect of the liposome matrix on the detected electrochemical signal was monitored. Besides encapsulation itself, comparison of toxicity of free lead ions and lead ions encapsulated in liposome was tested. The calculated IC50 values for evaluating the lead cytotoxicity showed significant differences between the lead enclosed in liposomes (28 µM) and free lead ions (237 µM). From the cytotoxicity studies on the bacterial strain of S. aureus it was observed that the free lead ions are less toxic in comparison with lead encapsulated in liposomes. Liposomes appear to be a suitable carrier of various substances through the inner cavity. Due to the liposome structure the lead enclosed in the liposome is more easily accepted into the cell structure and the toxicity of the enclosed lead is higher in comparison to free lead ions.
Keywords: lead; liposome; toxicity; differential pulse voltammetry; cyclic voltammetry; atomic absorption spectrometry; IC50; Staphylococcus aureus
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Kensova, R.; Blazkova, I.; Konecna, M.; Kopel, P.; Chudobova, D.; Zitka, O.; Vaculovicova, M.; Hynek, D.; Adam, V.; Beklova, M.; Kizek, R. Lead Ions Encapsulated in Liposomes and Their Effect on Staphylococcus aureus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 6687-6700.
Kensova R, Blazkova I, Konecna M, Kopel P, Chudobova D, Zitka O, Vaculovicova M, Hynek D, Adam V, Beklova M, Kizek R. Lead Ions Encapsulated in Liposomes and Their Effect on Staphylococcus aureus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(12):6687-6700.
Kensova, Renata; Blazkova, Iva; Konecna, Marie; Kopel, Pavel; Chudobova, Dagmar; Zitka, Ondrej; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Hynek, David; Adam, Vojtech; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene. 2013. "Lead Ions Encapsulated in Liposomes and Their Effect on Staphylococcus aureus." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 12: 6687-6700.