Next Article in Journal
Occupational Injuries on Thoroughbred Horse Farms: A Description of Latino and Non-Latino Workers’ Experiences
Previous Article in Journal
Crossing the Telemedicine Chasm: Have the U.S. Barriers to Widespread Adoption of Telemedicine Been Significantly Reduced?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(12), 6485-6499; doi:10.3390/ijerph10126485
Review

Smoking and Pregnancy — A Review on the First Major Environmental Risk Factor of the Unborn

1
,
2
,
1,*  and 1
1 Institute of Occupational Medicine, Social Medicine and Environmental Medicine, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany 2 Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 October 2013 / Revised: 12 November 2013 / Accepted: 13 November 2013 / Published: 29 November 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary challenges in public health)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [252 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |   Browse Figures

Abstract

Smoking cigarettes throughout pregnancy is one of the single most important avoidable causes of adverse pregnancy outcomes and it represents the first major environmental risk of the unborn. If compared with other risk factors in the perinatal period, exposure to tobacco smoke is considered to be amongst the most harmful and it is associated with high rates of long and short term morbidity and mortality for mother and child. A variety of adverse pregnancy outcomes are linked with cigarette consumption before and during pregnancy. Maternal prenatal cigarette smoke disturbs the equilibrium among the oxidant and antioxidant system, has negative impact on the genetic and cellular level of both mother and fetus and causes a large quantity of diseases in the unborn child. These smoking-induced damages for the unborn offspring manifest themselves at various times in life and for most only a very limited range of causal treatment exists. Education, support and assistance are of high importance to decrease maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality, as there are few other avoidable factors which influence a child’s health that profoundly throughout its life. It is imperative that smoking control should be seen as a public health priority.
Keywords: smoking; pregnancy; pregnant; tobacco; cigarette; prevention; therapy smoking; pregnancy; pregnant; tobacco; cigarette; prevention; therapy
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote
MDPI and ACS Style

Mund, M.; Louwen, F.; Klingelhoefer, D.; Gerber, A. Smoking and Pregnancy — A Review on the First Major Environmental Risk Factor of the Unborn. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 6485-6499.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

Cited By

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert