Next Article in Journal
Assessing Weather Effects on Dengue Disease in Malaysia
Previous Article in Journal
Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(12), 6305-6318; doi:10.3390/ijerph10126305

Factor Structure of Early Smoking Experiences and Associations with Smoking Behavior: Valence or Sensitivity Model?

Alcohol Treatment Centre, Lausanne University Hospital CHUV, Av. Beaumont 21 bis, Pavillon 2, CH-1011 Lausanne, Switzerland
Institute of Social- and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Hirschengraben 84, CH-8001 Zurich, Switzerland
Addiction Switzerland, postale 870, CH-1001 Lausanne, Switzerland
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, 250 College St., Toronto, ON, M5T 1R8, Canada
University of the West of England, Frenchay Campus, Coldharbour Lane, Bristol BS16 1QY, UK
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 October 2013 / Revised: 13 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 26 November 2013
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [278 KB, uploaded 19 June 2014]   |  


The Early Smoking Experience (ESE) questionnaire is the most widely used questionnaire to assess initial subjective experiences of cigarette smoking. However, its factor structure is not clearly defined and can be perceived from two main standpoints: valence, or positive and negative experiences, and sensitivity to nicotine. This article explores the ESE’s factor structure and determines which standpoint was more relevant. It compares two groups of young Swiss men (German- and French-speaking). We examined baseline data on 3,368 tobacco users from a representative sample in the ongoing Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ESE, continued tobacco use, weekly smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed. Exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) and structural equation modeling (SEM) were performed. ESEM clearly distinguished positive experiences from negative experiences, but negative experiences were divided in experiences related to dizziness and experiences related to irritations. SEM underlined the reinforcing effects of positive experiences, but also of experiences related to dizziness on nicotine dependence and weekly smoking. The best ESE structure for predictive accuracy of experiences on smoking behavior was a compromise between the valence and sensitivity standpoints, which showed clinical relevance. View Full-Text
Keywords: early smoking experience; factor structure; smoking behavior; tobacco early smoking experience; factor structure; smoking behavior; tobacco

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Baggio, S.; Studer, J.; Deline, S.; Mohler-Kuo, M.; Daeppen, J.-B.; Gmel, G. Factor Structure of Early Smoking Experiences and Associations with Smoking Behavior: Valence or Sensitivity Model? Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 6305-6318.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top