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West Nile Virus Transmission in Sentinel Chickens and Potential Mosquito Vectors, Senegal River Delta, 2008–2009
Laboratoire National d'Elevage et de Recherche Vétérinaire, Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles, Dakar-Hann BP 2057, Senegal
Unité Mixte de Recherche Contrôle des Maladies Animales Exotiques et Emergentes (UMR CMAEE), Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Montpellier 34398, France
UMR 1309 CMAEE, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Montpellier 34398, France
UMR CMAEE, INRA, Petit Bourg 97170, Guadeloupe, France
UMR 1309 CMAEE, INRA, Petit Bourg 97170, Guadeloupe, France
Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Département de Biologie Animale, Cheikh Anta Diop University, Dakar BP 5005, Senegal
These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 July 2013; in revised form: 12 September 2013 / Accepted: 17 September 2013 / Published: 1 October 2013
Abstract: West Nile virus (WNV) is an arthropod-borne Flavivirus usually transmitted to wild birds by Culex mosquitoes. Humans and horses are susceptible to WNV but are dead-end hosts. WNV is endemic in Senegal, particularly in the Senegal River Delta. To assess transmission patterns and potential vectors, entomological and sentinel serological was done in Ross Bethio along the River Senegal. Three sentinel henhouses (also used as chicken-baited traps) were set at 100 m, 800 m, and 1,300 m from the river, the latter close to a horse-baited trap. Blood samples were taken from sentinel chickens at 2-week intervals. Seroconversions were observed in sentinel chickens in November and December. Overall, the serological incidence rate was 4.6% with 95% confidence interval (0.9; 8.4) in the sentinel chickens monitored for this study. Based on abundance pattern, Culex neavei was the most likely mosquito vector involved in WNV transmission to sentinel chickens, and a potential bridge vector between birds and mammals.
Keywords: West Nile virus; sentinel chicken; mosquito; Culex; Senegal River Delta
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Fall, A.G.; Diaïté, A.; Seck, M.T.; Bouyer, J.; Lefrançois, T.; Vachiéry, N.; Aprelon, R.; Faye, O.; Konaté, L.; Lancelot, R. West Nile Virus Transmission in Sentinel Chickens and Potential Mosquito Vectors, Senegal River Delta, 2008–2009. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4718-4727.
Fall AG, Diaïté A, Seck MT, Bouyer J, Lefrançois T, Vachiéry N, Aprelon R, Faye O, Konaté L, Lancelot R. West Nile Virus Transmission in Sentinel Chickens and Potential Mosquito Vectors, Senegal River Delta, 2008–2009. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(10):4718-4727.
Fall, Assane G.; Diaïté, Amadou; Seck, Momar T.; Bouyer, Jérémy; Lefrançois, Thierry; Vachiéry, Nathalie; Aprelon, Rosalie; Faye, Ousmane; Konaté, Lassana; Lancelot, Renaud. 2013. "West Nile Virus Transmission in Sentinel Chickens and Potential Mosquito Vectors, Senegal River Delta, 2008–2009." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 10: 4718-4727.