Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10(10), 4669-4689; doi:10.3390/ijerph10104669
Review

The Complex Epidemiological Scenario of West Nile Virus in Italy

1,2,* email, 2email, 1,2email, 1email, 1email, 2email, 2email and 1,2,* email
Received: 1 August 2013; in revised form: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus)
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Abstract: Entomological, veterinary, and human surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV) infection have been implemented in Italy since the first detection of the virus in 1998. These surveillance activities documented a progressive increase of WNV activity and spread in different regions and the emergence of new WNV lineages and strains. Italy is a paradigmatic example of the complex epidemiology of WNV in Europe, where sporadic cases of WNV infection, clusters, and small outbreaks have been reported in several regions. In addition, different strains of both WNV lineage 1 and lineage 2 have been identified, even co-circulating in the same area.
Keywords: West Nile virus; epidemiology; phylogenetic analysis; surveillance; Italy; mosquitoes; human; horses; neuroinvasive disease; seroprevalence
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Barzon, L.; Pacenti, M.; Franchin, E.; Squarzon, L.; Lavezzo, E.; Cattai, M.; Cusinato, R.; Palù, G. The Complex Epidemiological Scenario of West Nile Virus in Italy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4669-4689.

AMA Style

Barzon L, Pacenti M, Franchin E, Squarzon L, Lavezzo E, Cattai M, Cusinato R, Palù G. The Complex Epidemiological Scenario of West Nile Virus in Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(10):4669-4689.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Squarzon, Laura; Lavezzo, Enrico; Cattai, Margherita; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio. 2013. "The Complex Epidemiological Scenario of West Nile Virus in Italy." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 10: 4669-4689.


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