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The Complex Epidemiological Scenario of West Nile Virus in Italy
Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Via Gabelli, 63, 35121 Padova, Italy
Microbiology and Virology Unit, University Hospital of Padova, Via Giustiniani, 2, 35128 Padova, Italy
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2013; in revised form: 17 September 2013 / Accepted: 22 September 2013 / Published: 30 September 2013
Abstract: Entomological, veterinary, and human surveillance systems for West Nile virus (WNV) infection have been implemented in Italy since the first detection of the virus in 1998. These surveillance activities documented a progressive increase of WNV activity and spread in different regions and the emergence of new WNV lineages and strains. Italy is a paradigmatic example of the complex epidemiology of WNV in Europe, where sporadic cases of WNV infection, clusters, and small outbreaks have been reported in several regions. In addition, different strains of both WNV lineage 1 and lineage 2 have been identified, even co-circulating in the same area.
Keywords: West Nile virus; epidemiology; phylogenetic analysis; surveillance; Italy; mosquitoes; human; horses; neuroinvasive disease; seroprevalence
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Barzon, L.; Pacenti, M.; Franchin, E.; Squarzon, L.; Lavezzo, E.; Cattai, M.; Cusinato, R.; Palù, G. The Complex Epidemiological Scenario of West Nile Virus in Italy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2013, 10, 4669-4689.
Barzon L, Pacenti M, Franchin E, Squarzon L, Lavezzo E, Cattai M, Cusinato R, Palù G. The Complex Epidemiological Scenario of West Nile Virus in Italy. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2013; 10(10):4669-4689.
Barzon, Luisa; Pacenti, Monia; Franchin, Elisa; Squarzon, Laura; Lavezzo, Enrico; Cattai, Margherita; Cusinato, Riccardo; Palù, Giorgio. 2013. "The Complex Epidemiological Scenario of West Nile Virus in Italy." Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 10, no. 10: 4669-4689.