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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1(1), 21-25; doi:10.3390/ijerph2004010021

Liver and Renal Function Tests in Artisans Occupationally Exposed to Lead in Mechanic Village in Nnewi, Nigeria

1
Department of Chemical Pathology, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria
2
Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
3
Dept of Human Biochemistry, College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2003 / Accepted: 25 January 2004 / Published: 29 February 2004
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Abstract

Additives in petroleum solvents have been reported to have adverse health implications. An evaluation study on some toxicological effects of occupational exposure to petroleum products (especially petrol which contains tetraethyl lead) amongst twenty five occupationally exposed artisans and twenty five graduate students of College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi, Nigeria as controls, was carried out using the following biochemical markers: electrolytes, urea, uric acid, inorganic phosphorus, creatinine, zinc and blood lead, as well as the activities of alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, and alkaline phosphatase. The results showed that occupational exposure of human subjects to lead in petrol increases the concentrations of uric acid (357 ± 123μ mol/L) and phosphate (1.5 ± 0.5m mol/L) in exposed subjects compared with unexposed subjects (uric acid 228 ± 105μ mol/L, phosphate 1.2 ± 0.41m mol/L; p < 0.01 in both cases). Significantly lower activities were observed for alkaline phosphatase (66 ± 18.9 iu/L). The activities of alanine aminotransferase (11.4 ± 4.0 iu/L) and aspartate aminotransferase (15.8 ± 4.4 iu/L) in occupationally exposed artisans were higher compared with unexposed subjects (alkaline phosphatase = 78 ± 22.4 iu/L alanine aminotranferase = 6.8 ± 2.7 iu/L, aspartate aminotranferase = 9.6 ± 3.5i u/L; p < 0.01 in all cases). Occupational exposure of human subjects to lead significantly increased blood lead (59.6 ± 15.9 μg/dL) and decreased plasma zinc (71.3 ± 14.4 μg/L) in exposed compared with unexposed subjects (blood lead = 35 ± 7 μg/dL, zinc = 108.4 ± 16.9 μg/dL; p < 0.01). The results indicate that occupational exposure to lead in petrol may compromise liver and renal function.
Keywords: Nigeria; Artisans; petrolium; lead; liver; kidney; biomarkers Nigeria; Artisans; petrolium; lead; liver; kidney; biomarkers
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Dioka, C.E.; Orisakwe, O.E.; Adeniyi, F.A.; Meludu, S.C. Liver and Renal Function Tests in Artisans Occupationally Exposed to Lead in Mechanic Village in Nnewi, Nigeria. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2004, 1, 21-25.

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