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Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(5), 757-771; doi:10.3390/md9050757

Carotenoid β-Ring Hydroxylase and Ketolase from Marine Bacteria—Promiscuous Enzymes for Synthesizing Functional Xanthophylls

Research Institute for Bioresources and Biotechnology, Ishikawa Prefectural University, Suematsu, Nonoichi-machi, Ishikawa 921-8836, Japan
Received: 21 March 2011 / Revised: 19 April 2011 / Accepted: 26 April 2011 / Published: 6 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids (Special Issue))
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Abstract

Marine bacteria belonging to genera Paracoccus and Brevundimonas of the α-Proteobacteria class can produce C40-type dicyclic carotenoids containing two β-end groups (β rings) that are modified with keto and hydroxyl groups. These bacteria produce astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and their derivatives, which are ketolated by carotenoid β-ring 4(4′)-ketolase (4(4′)-oxygenase; CrtW) and hydroxylated by carotenoid β-ring 3(3′)-hydroxylase (CrtZ). In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene for carotenoid β-ring 2(2′)-hydroxylase (CrtG). This review focuses on these carotenoid β-ring-modifying enzymes that are promiscuous for carotenoid substrates, and pathway engineering for the production of xanthophylls (oxygen-containing carotenoids) in Escherichia coli, using these enzyme genes. Such pathway engineering researches are performed towards efficient production not only of commercially important xanthophylls such as astaxanthin, but also of xanthophylls minor in nature (e.g., β-ring(s)-2(2′)-hydroxylated carotenoids).
Keywords: Paracoccus; Brevundimonas; marine bacteria; ketocarotenoid; functional xanthophyll Paracoccus; Brevundimonas; marine bacteria; ketocarotenoid; functional xanthophyll
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Misawa, N. Carotenoid β-Ring Hydroxylase and Ketolase from Marine Bacteria—Promiscuous Enzymes for Synthesizing Functional Xanthophylls. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 757-771.

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