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Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(5), 757-771; doi:10.3390/md9050757
Review

Carotenoid β-Ring Hydroxylase and Ketolase from Marine Bacteria—Promiscuous Enzymes for Synthesizing Functional Xanthophylls

Received: 21 March 2011; in revised form: 19 April 2011 / Accepted: 26 April 2011 / Published: 6 May 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Carotenoids)
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Abstract: Marine bacteria belonging to genera Paracoccus and Brevundimonas of the α-Proteobacteria class can produce C40-type dicyclic carotenoids containing two β-end groups (β rings) that are modified with keto and hydroxyl groups. These bacteria produce astaxanthin, adonixanthin, and their derivatives, which are ketolated by carotenoid β-ring 4(4′)-ketolase (4(4′)-oxygenase; CrtW) and hydroxylated by carotenoid β-ring 3(3′)-hydroxylase (CrtZ). In addition, the genus Brevundimonas possesses a gene for carotenoid β-ring 2(2′)-hydroxylase (CrtG). This review focuses on these carotenoid β-ring-modifying enzymes that are promiscuous for carotenoid substrates, and pathway engineering for the production of xanthophylls (oxygen-containing carotenoids) in Escherichia coli, using these enzyme genes. Such pathway engineering researches are performed towards efficient production not only of commercially important xanthophylls such as astaxanthin, but also of xanthophylls minor in nature (e.g., β-ring(s)-2(2′)-hydroxylated carotenoids).
Keywords: Paracoccus; Brevundimonas; marine bacteria; ketocarotenoid; functional xanthophyll Paracoccus; Brevundimonas; marine bacteria; ketocarotenoid; functional xanthophyll
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Misawa, N. Carotenoid β-Ring Hydroxylase and Ketolase from Marine Bacteria—Promiscuous Enzymes for Synthesizing Functional Xanthophylls. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 757-771.

AMA Style

Misawa N. Carotenoid β-Ring Hydroxylase and Ketolase from Marine Bacteria—Promiscuous Enzymes for Synthesizing Functional Xanthophylls. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(5):757-771.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Misawa, Norihiko. 2011. "Carotenoid β-Ring Hydroxylase and Ketolase from Marine Bacteria—Promiscuous Enzymes for Synthesizing Functional Xanthophylls." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 5: 757-771.


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