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Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts
Biotechnology Center “D. Alkalay L.”, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Avda. España 1680, Valparaiso, Chile
Fundación Chile, Avda. Parque Antonio Rabat Sur 6165, Vitacura, Santiago, Chile
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 March 2011; in revised form: 7 April 2011 / Accepted: 15 April 2011 / Published: 3 May 2011
Abstract: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts obtained from nine Chilean marine macro-algae collected at different seasons were examined in vitro and in vivo for properties that reduce the growth of plant pathogens or decrease the injury severity of plant foliar tissues following pathogen infection. Particular crude aqueous or organic extracts showed effects on the growth of pathogenic bacteria whereas others displayed important effects against pathogenic fungi or viruses, either by inhibiting fungal mycelia growth or by reducing the disease symptoms in leaves caused by pathogen challenge. Organic extracts obtained from the brown-alga Lessonia trabeculata inhibited bacterial growth and reduced both the number and size of the necrotic lesion in tomato leaves following infection with Botrytis cinerea. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the red-alga Gracillaria chilensis prevent the growth of Phytophthora cinnamomi, showing a response which depends on doses and collecting-time. Similarly, aqueous and ethanolic extracts from the brown-alga Durvillaea antarctica were able to diminish the damage caused by tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco leaves, and the aqueous procedure is, in addition, more effective and seasonally independent. These results suggest that macro-algae contain compounds with different chemical properties which could be considered for controlling specific plant pathogens.
Keywords: macro-algae; plant pathogen; Botrytis cinerea; Phytophthora cinnamomi; tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)
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MDPI and ACS Style
Jiménez, E.; Dorta, F.; Medina, C.; Ramírez, A.; Ramírez, I.; Peña-Cortés, H. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 739-756.
Jiménez E, Dorta F, Medina C, Ramírez A, Ramírez I, Peña-Cortés H. Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts. Marine Drugs. 2011; 9(5):739-756.
Jiménez, Edra; Dorta, Fernando; Medina, Cristian; Ramírez, Alberto; Ramírez, Ingrid; Peña-Cortés, Hugo. 2011. "Anti-Phytopathogenic Activities of Macro-Algae Extracts." Mar. Drugs 9, no. 5: 739-756.