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A correction was published on 7 May 2013, see Mar. Drugs 2013, 11(5), 1490-1491.

Mar. Drugs 2011, 9(11), 2176-2187; doi:10.3390/md9112176
Review

Pectenotoxin-2 from Marine Sponges: A Potential Anti-Cancer Agent—A Review

1
,
2
 and
3,4,*
Received: 2 September 2011 / Revised: 9 October 2011 / Accepted: 19 October 2011 / Published: 2 November 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds from Marine Sponges)
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Abstract

Pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2), which was first identified as a cytotoxic entity in marine sponges, has been reported to display significant cytotoxicity to human cancer cells where it inhibits mitotic separation and cytokinesis through the depolymerization of actin filaments. In the late stage of endoreduplication, the effects of PTX-2 on different cancer cells involves: (i) down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 members and IAP family proteins; (ii) up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax protein and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-receptor 1/receptor 2 (DR4/DR5); and (iii) mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, PTX-2 induces apoptotic effects through suppression of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in several cancer cells. Analysis of cell cycle regulatory proteins showed that PTX-2 increases phosphorylation of Cdc25c and decreases protein levels of Cdc2 and cyclin B1. Cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21 and Cdk2, which are associated with the induction of endoreduplication, were upregulated. Furthermore, it was found that PTX-2 suppressed telomerase activity through the transcriptional and post-translational suppression of hTERT. The purpose of this review was to provide an update regarding the anti-cancer mechanism of PTX-2, with a special focus on its effects on different cellular signaling cascades.
Keywords: pectenotoxin-2; cancer; cell cycle; apoptosis pectenotoxin-2; cancer; cell cycle; apoptosis
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Kim, G.-Y.; Kim, W.-J.; Choi, Y.H. Pectenotoxin-2 from Marine Sponges: A Potential Anti-Cancer Agent—A Review. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 2176-2187.

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